On February 28, 2023, the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) mission tweeted about its latest observation of a galaxy, which included three separate photos. The JWST’s capacity to capture such breathtaking imagery continuously amazes and captivates both scientists and space enthusiasts.

JWST captures Supernova in Gravitational Lens
Credit: ESA/Webb, NASA & CSA, P. Kelly

How does the JWST take three photographs of the same object at the same time?

This is done through gravitational lensing, when a large celestial body bends or twists light.  This happens most often around stars like our Sun, but it can also occur around extremely distant, enormous galaxies. The gravitational lens of RX J2129 bends and splits light from a supernova-hosting galaxy into three pictures.

As a result of the galaxy cluster RX J2129 distorting and bending its light, a supernova-containing galaxy appears in three distinct images. About 3,2 billion light-years from Earth is where you’ll find this cluster of galaxies. Because light had to travel different distances to generate each image, astronomers have determined that the images all seem different because of their different ages and characteristics.

Type IA supernova!

Astronomers say that the earliest photograph of the potential supernova, AT 2002riv is a Type IA supernova. Two similar lines on either side of it provide supporting evidence for this claim. When we took another picture of the faraway galaxy 320 and 1000 days later, we found that the supernova was no longer visible. The brightness of type IA supernovae is useful for determining huge cosmic distances.

The European Space Agency explains: “The almost uniform luminosity of a Type IA supernova could also allow astronomers to understand how strongly the galaxy cluster RX J2129 is magnifying background objects, and therefore how massive the galaxy cluster is,” It continues: “As well as distorting the images of background objects, gravitational lenses can cause distant objects to appear much brighter than they would otherwise. If the gravitational lens magnifies something with a known brightness, such as a Type IA supernova, then astronomers can use this to measure the ‘prescription’ of the gravitational lens.”

Gravitational Lens
Credit: NASA, ESA & L. Calcada

Gravitational lensing!

Gravitational lensing is when a massive celestial body’s gravitational force causes distant object’s light to appear bent or distorted from a specific angle. This creates a cosmic lens that enables astronomers to see objects located behind the massive object. As it passed through RX J2129. the light from a galaxy with a supernova bent and split into three images.

In 1979, gravitational lensing split light from a distant object, proving Einstein’s general relativity theory. Gravitational microlensing finds exoplanets, while this effect studies supernovae. In 1979, the JWST captured two quasars that had been gravitationally lensed.  JWST’s gravitational lensing will reveal how many supernovae and other insights it finds. This justifies the persistence of scientific investigation.


Published by: Sky Headlines

The great James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) has captured the imagination of the scientific community and space enthusiasts alike. As the largest and most powerful space telescope ever built, It will change our understanding of the universe. Here are some amazing James Webb Telescope Facts that you need to know:

Fact 1: The JWST is the largest space telescope ever built

The JWST is massive, weighing in at 6.5 tons, and is about the size of a tennis court when fully deployed. The size of this great telescope is about 22 meters by 12 meters. According to NASA, Its primary mirror has a diameter of 6.5 meters (21 feet 4 inches) across, which is more than twice the size of the Hubble Space Telescope’s primary mirror.

Fact 2: It is an infrared telescope

Unlike Hubble, which primarily observes visible and ultraviolet light, the JWST is an infrared telescope. This means it can see through dust and gas clouds to reveal objects. The objects that are hidden from view at visible wavelengths. For example the earliest galaxies in the universe and the formation of stars and planets.

Fact 3: The JWST has a unique orbit

The JWST orbits around the L2 point, which is a gravitationally stable location in space located 1.5 million kilometers from Earth. This orbit allows the telescope to remain in a fixed position relative to Earth as it observes the universe, and provides a stable environment for its sensitive instruments.

Fact 4: It took over 20 years to develop and launch

The idea for the JWST was first proposed in the mid-1990s. Around 30 years ago, STScI Director Riccardo Giacconi urged the team to “think about the next major mission beyond Hubble.” Before the launch of Hubble, an STScI workshop developed a mission design in September 1989. The project has gone through numerous design iterations and funding challenges since then. The telescope finally launches on December 25, 2021, from ESA’s launch site at Kourou in French Guiana.

Fact 5: The goal of JSWT – Study the earliest galaxies and stars

One of the major James Webb Telescope facts is that it is the leading scientific goal of the JWST is to study the earliest galaxies that formed in the universe, shortly after the Big Bang. By observing these galaxies, scientists hope to gain insights into how the universe evolved over time. The telescope studies star and planet formation and searches for life on other worlds.

Fact 6: The lifespan of JSWT is at least 10 years

The JWST is designed to operate for at least 10 years, but it is expected to continue operating for much longer. Its instruments and systems have been designed to withstand the harsh conditions of space, and its unique orbit will help to ensure its longevity.

Fact 7: The JWST is a collaborative effort

The JWST is a collaborative effort between NASA, the European Space Agency (ESA), and the Canadian Space Agency (CSA). The project has involved over 300 universities, organizations, and companies across 29 U.S. states and 14 countries.

Fact 8: The JWST will work with the Hubble Space Telescope

Although the JWST is much more powerful than the Hubble Space Telescope, the two telescopes will collaborate to explore the universe. The Hubble will continue to observe visible and ultraviolet light, while the JWST will focus on infrared light.

Fact 9: The JWST has already produced stunning images

Within a few months, the JWST started producing some stunning images of the universe. These images include a detailed look at the “Pillars of Creation” in the Eagle Nebula, and a spectacular view of the galaxy cluster Abell 2744.

JWST discovered the most distant galaxies in mid-December. The telescope proved its ability to observe the early universe with this milestone. The telescope discovered four 13.4 billion-year-old galaxies, which existed when the universe was 350 million years old. JWST’s Near Infrared Spectrograph found these galaxies (JADES).

Final Words!

The James Webb Space Telescope is a remarkable achievement of human invention and technological prowess. With its advanced capabilities, it promises to transform our understanding of the universe and help us answer some of the most fundamental questions about our place in the cosmos. The JWST continues to gather data and produce stunning images. As a result, it is sure to capture the imagination of people around the world.

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The JSWT is part of the Early Release Science program. And Webb’s conducted one of initial scientific observations by gazing at Messier 92 (M92). M92 is a globular cluster in the Milky Way halo, Which is approximately 27,000 light-years away. This occurred on June 20, 2022, and lasted for slightly over an hour. There are 13 ERS programs that assist astronomers in comprehending how to utilize Webb and leverage its scientific capabilities.

Matteo Correnti is from the Italian Space Agency. Alessandro Savino is from the University of California, Berkeley. Roger Cohen is from Rutgers University. Andy Dolphin is from Raytheon Technologies. They were interviewed to gather insights into Webb’s observations of M92. The team is utilizing the data to assist other astronomers. Kristen McQuinn had previously discussed her research on the dwarf galaxy WLM. The dwarf galaxy WLM is also included in this initiative. This conversation happened last November.

What is the purpose of ERS program?

Alessandro Savino:

The emphasis of this program is on studying resolved stellar populations. These are massive collections of stars such as M92 that are located near us, making it possible for Webb to isolate each star within the system. From a scientific perspective, these observations are highly captivating as they offer insights into the physics of stars and galaxies that can be gathered from entities situated much further away. It is through our study of our local cosmic environment that we gain much of our understanding of these distant objects.

Matteo Correnti:

We are also working towards enhancing our understanding of the telescope. This initiative has played a crucial role in refining the calibration process to ensure the highest level of measurement accuracy, which will benefit other astronomers and comparable projects by improving the quality of the data obtained.

Why did you decide to look at M92 in particular?


M92 and other globular clusters hold great significance in comprehending the process of stellar evolution. For many years, they have been serving as a vital standard for comprehending the workings and development of stars. M92, a prime example of a globular cluster, is near us and is well-understood, making it a crucial reference point in studies of stellar systems and their evolution.


M92 holds significant importance due to its status as one of the Milky Way’s oldest globular clusters, potentially even being the oldest. With an estimated age of 12 to 13 billion years, M92 hosts some of the most ancient stars that can be observed and analyzed. These nearby clusters serve as valuable indicators of the early universe, aiding in our understanding of its origins.

Roger Cohen:

One of the reasons why we selected M92 is due to its high density, where numerous stars are tightly packed together. The core of the cluster is thousands of times denser compared to the region surrounding the Sun. Studying M92 will enable us to evaluate the performance of Webb in this specific regime, where we need to measure stars that are in very close proximity to each other.

Characteristics of a globular – studying stars’ evolution!

Andy Dolphin:

A key feature of M92 is that the majority of its stars likely originated from a single period of formation and with similar elemental compositions, yet they exhibit a diverse range of masses. This provides an excellent opportunity to study this specific cohort of stars in depth.


Furthermore, as all the stars are part of the same entity, namely the globular cluster M92, it is evident that they are all at approximately the same distance from us. This fact is quite useful because it implies that any variations in brightness amongst the stars are most likely due to inherent characteristics, rather than just being influenced by their respective distances. Consequently, it simplifies the process of comparing the stars with models to a significant extent.

Hubble Space Telescope Vs Webb!


Webb and Hubble Telescope differ significantly in terms of their wavelength range. Webb is capable of operating at longer wavelengths, where the majority of light emission comes from cool, low-mass stars. This makes Webb particularly applicable for observing such stars. Webb is capable of detecting stars with masses less than 0.1 times that of the Sun, which is intriguing because this is close to the point where stars cease to exist as stars. Beyond this boundary lies brown dwarfs, which are too low-mass to generate hydrogen ignition in their cores.


In comparison to Hubble Webb offers a significant increase in speed. To observe the extremely faint low-mass stars using Hubble,

It needs hundreds of hours of telescope time, whereas, with Webb, it only takes a few hours.


The purpose of these observations was not to test the full capabilities of the telescope, yet it is reassuring to find that we were able to detect dim and tiny stars without exerting excessive effort.

Facts about the low-mass stars!


To begin with, they constitute the largest population of stars in the entire universe. Secondly, they hold significant theoretical interest due to the challenges in observing and characterizing them, particularly those with a mass of less than half that of the Sun, where our comprehension of stellar models remains somewhat uncertain.


By examining the light that low-mass stars emit, we can enhance our ability to determine the age of the globular cluster. This knowledge, in turn, can provide us with a deeper understanding of the formation of various components of the Milky Way, such as the halo where M92 is situated. These insights into cosmic history can have far-reaching implications.

The Chip gap:

The utilization of Webb’s Near-Infrared Camera (NIRCam) helps in the creation of this image. NIRCam consists of two modules and the “chip gap” separates it. The central area of the cluster is both densely populated and exceptionally luminous, which restricted the applicability of the data gathered from that zone. However, the positioning of these images aligns well with the Hubble data that is already accessible.

JWST Discovers Sparkling Globular Cluster with Separate Stars
Image credit: NASA, ESA, CSA, A. Pagan (STScI).


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At infrared wavelengths, NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope is revealing star formation, and networks of gas and dust in nearby galaxies. An initial collection of 21 research publications has shed light on how the universe’s simplest processes, such as star formation, affect the history of its largest objects, galaxies.

PHANGS collaboration:

In Webb’s first year of science operations, the Physics at High Angular resolution in Nearby Galaxies (PHANGS) collaboration is conducting the largest nearby galaxy survey. Janice Lee, Gemini Observatory chief scientist at the National Science Foundation’s NOIRLab and affiliate astronomer at the University of Arizona in Tucson, leads Webb observations.

Five of the team’s 19 spiral galaxies—M74, NGC 7496, IC 5332, NGC 1365, and NGC 1433—have been observed in Webb’s first few months of science operations. The results amaze astronomers.

David Thilker is a Professor at Maryland’s Johns Hopkins University. He says: “The clarity with which we are seeing the fine structure certainly caught us by surprise,”

Erik Rosolowsky is a Canadian student at the University of Alberta. He says that he was part of the team. Moreover, he explains: “We are directly seeing how the energy from the formation of young stars affects the gas around them, and it’s just remarkable,”

Webb reveals intricate networks of gas and dust in galaxies
Credits: NASA, ESA, CSA, and J. Lee (NOIRLab). Image processing: A. Pagan (STScI)

Webb’s Mid-Infrared Instrument (MIRI) photos show brilliant cavities of dust and large gas bubbles that line the spiral arms. However, This web of characteristics appears to be discrete and overlapping shells and bubbles where young stars release energy in some nearby galaxies.

Karin Sandstrom is also a squad member at Columbia university San Diego. She says: “Areas which are completely dark in Hubble imaging light up in exquisite detail in these new infrared images, allowing us to study how the dust in the interstellar medium has absorbed the light from forming stars and emitted it back out in the infrared, illuminating intricate networks of gas and dust,”

The Evolution:

For a long time, astronomers lacked the high-resolution images necessary to examine these formations, but Webb has changed all that.

Adam Leroy is a member of the PHANGS team. He explained that the team has conducted years of observations of galaxies at optical, radio, and ultraviolet wavelengths. The observation is get using various telescopes. This telescope includes NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope, and the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array. Moreover, the Very Large Telescope’s Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer is also very significant in the observation.

Despite these extensive observations, the earliest stages of a star’s lifecycle have remained out of view, as they occur within dense clouds of gas and dust that shroud the process from view. These networks of gas and dust are also known as molecular clouds. They are clouds where stars are born. Moreover, the complex processes that lead to the formation of new stars take place in this region. Studying these molecular clouds in more detail is very significant for the PHANGS team. As they hope to shed light on the earliest stages of star formation. This will help them gain a better understanding of how stars are born and evolve.

With its tremendous infrared capabilities, Webb can see past the obscuring dust and piece it together.

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons:

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons play also an essential role in star and planet formation. Besides, Their emission can be detected at specific wavelengths. These emissions can be observed by MIRI (7.7 and 11.3 microns) and Webb’s Near-Infrared Camera (3.3 microns). With the initial PHANGS observations, Webb was able to spot these compounds.

Understanding the bigger picture of galaxy evolution through the study of these interactions at the smallest scale is possible.


Webb reveals intricate networks of gas and dust in galaxies
Credits: NASA, ESA, CSA, and J. Lee (NOIRLab). Image processing: A. Pagan (STScI)

Leader of the PHANGS team:

Eva Schinnerer is a leader of the PHANGS team. Moreover, he is an astronomer at the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy in Heidelberg, Germany. He explained about the networks of gas and dust: “Because these observations are taken as part of what’s called a treasury program, they are available to the public as they are observed and received on Earth,”

In order to assist in the process of discovery, the PHANGS team will work to compile and share data sets that align Webb’s data to each of the complementary data sets gathered previously from the other observatories.

In a statement, Lee expressed his gratitude for the high resolution of the telescope. The telescope allows conducting of a comprehensive census of star formation in nearby galaxies beyond the Local Group. Moreover, Lee suggests that this census will provide insight into how star formation and its feedback impact the interstellar medium. This could either lead to the formation of the next generation of stars or impede their formation. Furthermore, The inventories of interstellar medium bubble structures will help in understanding the complex interplay between star formation and the surrounding environment. This will provide important insights into the formation and evolution of galaxies.

PHANGS study is part of the General Observer program 2107. The Astrophysical Journal Letters released the team’s early findings from 21 research in a special emphasis issue.


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NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope has released its latest deep field image, which shows previously unseen details in a region of space known as Pandora’s Cluster (Abell 2744). Three huge galaxies join to form a giant cluster, according to Webb. Due to the cluster’s gravitational lens, scientists can identify even more distant galaxies from the early universe by using it as a magnifying glass.

Previous NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope research only focused on Pandora’s center core. With the powerful infrared instruments aboard Webb and a wide mosaic view of the region’s many sites of lensing, astronomers hoped to strike a balance between breadth and depth that would lead to new insights into the nature of the universe and the development of galaxies.

Rachel Bezanson is an astronomer at the University of Pittsburgh in Pennsylvania. Moreover, he is the co-principal investigator on the “UNCOVER” (Ultradeep NIRSpec and NIRCam ObserVations before the Epoch of Reionization) program to study the region. “The ancient myth of Pandora is about human curiosity and discoveries that delineate the past from the future, which I think is a fitting connection to the new realms of the universe Webb is opening up, including this deep-field image of Pandora’s Cluster,”

Combining JSWT images!

The recently discovered view of Pandora’s Cluster is a panorama of four Webb photographs, displaying over 50,000 sources of near-infrared light. “When the images of Pandora’s Cluster first came in from Webb, we were honestly a little star-struck,”. Bezanson says. “There was so much detail in the foreground cluster and so many distant lensed galaxies, I found myself getting lost in the image. Webb exceeded our expectations.”

In addition to magnification, gravitational lensing distorts distant galaxies, making them look significantly different from those in the foreground. The galaxy cluster “lens” is so large that it warps space, causing light from distant galaxies to look twisted.

Explanation – Ivo Labbe!

Astronomer Ivo Labbe of the Swinburne University of Technology in Melbourne, Australia, co-principal investigator on the UNCOVER program. He says that in the lensing core to the lower right in the Webb image, Hubble has never imaged. Webb revealed hundreds of distant lensed galaxies that appear as faint arced lines. As you zoom in, more appear.

In another statement, Labbe expresses excitement about the new image of Pandora’s Cluster captured by the James Webb Space Telescope, a new and powerful tool for studying the universe. The image is better than ever, according to Labbe.

Labbe also emphasizes the beauty of the image, stating that it looks like a simulation of galaxy formation. However, Labbe reminds us that this is not a simulation but real data and that the image represents a new era of astronomy where we can observe and study the universe in unprecedented detail.

Webb’s Imaging!

The UNCOVER team observed Pandora’s cluster for around 30 hours, using exposures of 4-6 hours with Webb’s Near-Infrared Camera (NIRCam). The next step is to carefully examine the imaging data. And to choose galaxies for further observation with the Near-Infrared Spectrograph (NIRSpec). This will yield accurate distance measurements and additional information about the lensed galaxies’ compositions. Thus shedding light on the formative stages of galaxy formation and evolution. According to the UNCOVER group, these NIRSpec observations will take place in the summer of 2023.

NIRCam photometric data of Pandora’s Cluster is also available. This helps other astronomers can become familiar with it and plan their scientific studies with Webb’s rich datasets. “We are committed to helping the astronomy community make the best use of the fantastic resource we have in Webb,” said UNCOVER co-investigator Gabriel Brammer of the Niels Bohr Institute’s Cosmic Dawn Center at the University of Copenhagen. “This is just the beginning of all the amazing Webb science to come.”

Webb has enormous datasets and NIRCam photometric data. This can be very helpful for astronomers to create research programs. Gabriel Brammer is the co-investigator of the UNCOVER and the Cosmic Dawn Center at the University of Copenhagen. He said remarked: “We are committed to assisting the astronomy community in making the best use of the amazing resource we have in Webb.” The incredible Webb science to come will only begin with this, so to speak.

Webb data from three early observation programs. Named JWST-GO-2561, JWST-DD-ERS-1324, and JWST-DD-2756. This was used to create the UNCOVER team’s photo mosaics and source library for Pandora’s Cluster (Abell 2744).

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The massive asteroid is the size of the Washington Monument. This demonstrates the power of the powerful telescope in discovering celestial objects even in our own backyard. The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) discovered the smallest asteroid estimated to be the size of Rome’s Colosseum. The JWST is have caught various small objects since its launch at the end of 2021.

The James Webb Space Telescope has gained recognition for detecting far and massive astronomical objects.
Its latest discovery, however, showcases its unexpected usefulness closer to Earth. The new discovery demonstrates the instrument’s potent capabilities even in our own backyard.

What makes this news that big?

The discovery of the 330- to 660-foot (100- to 200-meter) asteroid is all the more remarkable because it was discovered using data that was originally collected to calibrate the Mid-Infrared Instrument (MIRI), not to find new asteroids. This demonstrates the JWST’s unexpected and powerful capabilities.

The asteroid belt:

The asteroid belt lies between Mars and Jupiter. It is home to millions of space rocks. Moreover, it remained of the solar system formed over 4.5 billion years ago. The objects in the belt range in size from Ceres, a dwarf planet with a diameter of around 620 miles (1000 kilometers), to small fragments less than 33 feet (10 meters).

As “fossilized remains” of the early solar system, asteroids hold valuable information about the formation of planets, including Earth. The study of these celestial objects can shed light on the early stages of planetary development.

Discovery and analysis of the smallest asteroid:

Smaller asteroids have been less extensively studied due to their difficulty in observation. However, it offers valuable insights into the early solar system.

The discovery of the smallest asteroid by the JWST is particularly exciting. Because it suggests that astronomers will have the capability to study even smaller asteroids in the future. Moreover, those asteroids are less than half a mile in diameter. And they will be studied using a powerful telescope.

The data from JSWT while observing the main-belt asteroid (10920) 1998 BC1. This was originally discovered in 1998. Despite the efforts of the team, the observation has been considered a failure due to the excessive brightness of asteroid 10920 1998 BC1 and an incorrect alignment of the JWST’s direction.

Future work:

Recognizing that the data is still very useful. The team decides to use it to establish and validate a new method for calculating an object’s orbit and size. Through their analysis, they discovered the “photo-bombing” asteroid, which had unexpectedly entered the frame.


By analyzing the data, the scientists estimated the size of the asteroid. They determined that it was located in the inner region of the main asteroid belt. Moreover, it had a low-inclination orbit. Going forward, astronomers will work to refine the orbit of the newly discovered object. And make additional observations against the backdrop of stars.

What are astronomers’ reviews on the smallest asteroid?

Bryan Holler:

Bryan Holler is a Webb support scientist in Baltimore at the Space Telescope Science Institute (STSI). He says: “This is a fantastic result which highlights the capabilities of MIRI to serendipitously detect a previously undetectable size of asteroid in the main belt,”. Moreover, he says: “Repeats of these observations are in the process of being scheduled, and we are fully expecting new asteroid interlopers in those images!”

Thomas Müller:

An astronomer at Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics astronomer Thomas Müller said in a statement: “We  —  completely unexpectedly  —  detected a small asteroid in publicly available MIRI calibration observations,” Moreover, he said: “The measurements are some of the first MIRI measurements targeting the ecliptic plane and our work suggests that many, new objects will be detected with this instrument.”

Müller says that findings demonstrate that even “failed” observations from the JSWT can still yield valuable scientific results, with the right approach and a bit of good fortune. He said: “Our results show that even ‘failed’ Webb observations can be scientifically useful if you have the right mindset and a little bit of luck,” Müller more said. “Our detection lies in the main asteroid belt, but the JWST’s incredible sensitivity made it possible to see this roughly 100-meter object at a distance of more than 100 million kilometers [over 62 million miles].”


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NASA’s $10 billion James Webb space telescope is now back in operation! After recovering from the 2nd Instrument Glitch that affected one of its instruments, NASA’s  Space Telescope (JWST or Webb) officially started full science operations on Monday (January 30).

What was the flaw of the James Webb Telescope?

NASA stated on Tuesday (January 31), the James Webb Telescope team conducted days of testing and evaluation. They do so after a “communications delay” on January 15 caused issues with the telescope’s Near Infrared Imager and Spitless Spectrograph (NIRISS) instrument.

On Friday (January 27), In its brief statement, the agency made a statement. They say that it was a major defect. Moreover, the agency said: “Observations that were impacted by the pause in NIRISS operations will be rescheduled,”

Who helped NASA in diagnosing this 2nd instrument glitch?

NIRISS was provided by the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), so NASA and CSA personnel collaborated on troubleshooting. According to NASA’s statement published on January 24, the initial problem was a: “communications delay within the instrument, causing its flight software to time out,”

According to NASA, NIRISS can normally operate in four different modes. When other James Webb Telescope instruments are busy, the instrument starts acting as a camera. NIRISS can also study the light signatures of small exoplanet atmospheres, perform high-contrast imaging, and study distant galaxies.

What is the Medium Resolution Spectrometer?

Prior to the NIRISS problem, another JSWT instrument encountered a problem in August 2022. This time it was a grating wheel inside the observatory’s Mid-Infrared Instrument (MIRI). However, because the wheel is only required for one of MIRI’s four observing modes, the instrument continued to observe during recovery operations. In November, work on recovering the glitch, known as the Medium Resolution Spectrometer, was all done.

How long it took to recover JSWT?

The James Webb Telescope team also spent two weeks in December dealing with the 2nd Instrument Glitch that kept putting the telescope in safe mode. The problem which was making science observations difficult was a software glitch in the observatory’s attitude control system, which was affecting the direction in which the telescope pointed. On December 20, the observatory recovered quickly from the problem, resuming full science operations.


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James Webb Space Telescope has delivered some amazing images and this is before even this space telescope finished with its first full year of observations. The telescope had detected galaxies in the incredibly young universe. Among these stunning images and remarkable findings, this was a puzzling assertion. The Big Bang Theory of cosmology was claimed to be “broken” due to those galaxies which were so massive and appeared so early. This rumor got so much popularity. But due to the false information on the internet, this claim can not be trusted.

Is Big Bang theory really ‘broken’?

The answer is “No”. Here is when the researchers step up to back up this theory. The researchers deeply studied the images taken by the James Webb Telescope. And determined that the distant galaxies, indeed, perfectly agree with our modern understanding of cosmology.

The existence of distant galaxies is not necessarily a problem. Modern Plasma cosmology predicts the appearance of galaxies in the very young universe known as ΛCDM cosmology.  Where the Λ stands for dark energy, and CDM is short for “cold dark matter”. This is due to the absence of galaxies and even stars billions of years ago. When our universe was much smaller and denser than everything was much more uniform, with only minor density differences appearing at random.

However, those density differences grew over time, with the slightly denser pockets drawing more material onto them. Over hundreds of millions of years, those pockets grew to become the first stars, and then the first galaxies.

Indeed, one of the top objectives of the James Webb telescope was to discover. And characterize those first galaxies. So finding galaxies in the incredibly young universe is a point in favor of the Big Bang theory rather than against it.

So, What is the conflict then?

The apparent tension resulted from the estimated masses of those galaxies. Several of them were quite massive — well over 10^10 solar masses. Although they are still much smaller than the Milky Way, they were quite large in the early universe.

According to the researchers who discovered these galaxies, their large masses put them at odds with many models of galactic formation and evolution. The researchers even went so far as to say that no galaxy formation model within the ΛCDM framework may be able to produce such massive galaxies so quickly.

However, those claims were entirely dependent on correctly measuring the distance to those galaxies — an extremely difficult task at such great distances. The researchers used a technique known as a photometric redshift, which approximates a galaxy’s distance by fitting a galaxy’s rough light spectrum to a model. This technique was used to find the record-breaking galaxies that might conflict with cosmological models. This technique is notoriously unreliable. Simple effects like extra dust surrounding the galaxies making them appear farther away than they are.

What is spectroscopic redshift?

A new team of researchers used James Webb to identify galaxies with a much more precise. And the reliable method of determining distance, known as spectroscopic redshift, to accurately judge if the Big Bang Theory is in trouble.

How spectroscopic redshift has helped researchers?

This method identifies the spectral lines of known elements emitted by galaxies. And uses them to calculate the redshift and thus the distance to the galaxies. The team discovered four galaxies using this more precise technique. Despite having long-standing, accurate distances, each of those galaxies was equally remote from the known galaxies. These galaxies did, however, have much smaller masses—between 10^8 and 10^9 solar masses.

Does ΛCDM allow for the existence of these smaller galaxies?

The main concern was that does ΛCDM allow for the existence of these smaller galaxies at such a young age in the history of the universe does the tension persist. Building galaxies is a difficult task. While pen-and-paper mathematics can allow cosmologists to chart the overall history and evolution of the cosmos within the ΛCDM model, galaxy formation is a complex interplay of many different types of physics, including gravity, star formation and supernova explosions, dust distribution, cosmic rays, magnetic fields, and more.

Accounting for all of these interactions necessitates the use of supercomputer simulations that start with the raw, primal state of the universe billions of years ago. And use physics laws to build artificial galaxies. This is the only way to link what we see in the real world to the basic parameters of the ΛCDM model. For example, the amount of normal and dark matter in the cosmos.

Fortunately, there were no such issues. The team described in their research paper, which has been submitted to The Astrophysical Journal Letters and is available as a preprint via arXiv, that the appearance of galaxies with 10^8 solar masses in the early universe was no sweat for ΛCDM.

Let’s conclude this discussion!

As is customary, this is not the final answer that the Big Bang Theory is broken. Astronomers may yet confirm the distance to a very large galaxy in the early universe, forcing us to reconsider our understanding of galaxy formation and, possibly, the ΛCDM cosmological model. It is critical in science to keep an open mind. However, the exaggerated claims made from the early James Webb data don’t cause concern just yet.


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More than 33,000 newborn stars are hidden in the NGC 346 Nebula. Which is the brightest and greatest star-producing region in the galaxy, thanks to Webb’s high-resolution imagery. Astronomers have recently studied NGC 346 with telescope missions, but this is the first time they have observed the dust. The formation of the first stars during “cosmic noon” more than 10 billion years ago is seen in a new image from the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST).

At “cosmic noon,” the James Webb Space Telescope discovers star birth clues for newborn stars. Astronomers have come closer to understanding how early stars evolved during “cosmic noon” than 10 billion years ago.

By combining Webb’s observational capabilities with the gravitational lensing effect, which occurs when extremely massive foreground objects bend light to magnify faint background objects, astronomers were able to make an additional discovery while studying this image. They discovered an unknown and extremely distant galaxy.

Cosmic Noon!

The Cosmic Noon of galaxy formation began roughly three billion years after the Big Bang when the Cosmic Dawn of galaxy formation came to an end and galaxies started to develop at ever-faster rates. A “typical” galaxy at that time was much bigger than it had been during the Cosmic Dawn. 

These galaxies also contained supermassive black holes, which, while consuming neighboring gas, evolved into remarkably bright celestial objects. The majority of the stars and black holes in the universe developed over a few billion years close to Cosmic Noon.

In the NGC 346 nebula, which is the galaxy’s brightest and greatest star-forming region. Scientists have now found more than 33,000 newborn stars all thanks to Webb’s high-resolution imaging. 

NGC 346 Nebula!

The recently released image shows NGC 346, an object that is a part of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), a dwarf galaxy that is only 200,000 light years away from Earth. As is the case in many regions of the present universe, NGC 346 was already well-known as a nursery for young stars.

The Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), a dwarf galaxy near the Milky Way, is where NCG 346 is present. 

It is one of the most active star-forming zones in nearby galaxies, but NGC 346, and is shrouded in mystery. Compared to the Milky Way, the SMC has lower amounts of metals, which are substances heavier than hydrogen or helium. 

Scientists anticipated that there would be very little dust. Moreover, it would be difficult to detect because the majority of the dust grains in space are of metals. But brand-new Webb data shows the exact reverse.

In the upcoming months, scientists hope to discover more. If the Small Magellanic Cloud’s star formation process is comparable to or unlike our own. 

By sucking in surrounding dust these stars are expanding and increasing their size and composition, so it is still unknown how much Webb will hold itself during this star formation process. Ultimately, a rocky planet will be all alone.

What are astronomers’ thoughts on this discovery? 

Astronomers are now relying on JWST to search for the youngest stars and find stars that are not visible in the dust. Astronomers have found several stars that are invisible or misidentified in the optical range by looking for star-forming regions in the infrared.

One of the authors of the report and an astronomer with the Universities Space Research Association Margaret Meixner said; “We have just scratched the surface of this data,”. Moreover, she stated that; “We are going to go back and push it down to [almost] brown dwarf limits to see what we can find.”


Published by: Sky Headlines

After the successful launch of the James Webb Space Telescope (JSWT), NASA is not taking any breaks. NASA is nowhere near stopping, instead of that this space research organization has announced to development of a new large space telescope

In the 241st AAS Meeting, NASA shared James Webb Space Telescope’s (JWST) new findings and updates. This meeting was held at Washington State Convention Center, Seattle, WA from 8, January to 12, January 2023. NASA’s research team shared Webb’s findings and results in the meeting.

NASA announced to start of developing a new next-generation space telescope in the 241st meeting of the American Astronomical Society (AAS) held from 8, January to 12, January 2023. NASA’s research team briefed Webb’s findings in the meeting.

NASA has yet discovered about 13 planets in other solar systems since 2020. Even if we say that these planets are habitable we are not confident that some of those are likely habitable. That’s the reason why scientists are now counting on Habitable World Observatory.

Nancy Grace Roman Space Telescope!

The “Nancy Grace Roman Space Telescope” aim is to determine vital questions in the areas of dark energy, exoplanets, and infrared astrophysics. The short name of “Nancy Grace Roman Space Telescope” is “Roman Space Telescope”. This infrared telescope is formerly known as the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST). This next-generation space observatory is still developing and hopefully will be launched by May 2027.

NASA seems to be following Astro2020’s recommendation. NASA started the GOMAP ( Great Observatory Technology Maturation Program ) last year. This was a program that will focus on what are “New Great Observatories”. At the 241st meeting of the AAS (American Astronomical Society), NASA’s research team announced that they will develop an infrared space telescope which will be called a Habitable Worlds Observatory (HWO).

Features of Roman Telescope!

This impressive piece of hardware will be equipped with a 2.4-meter mirror and a 300-megapixel camera offering an image capture area 100 times larger than Hubble Telescope can produce with an identical resolution. Comparing the design of the new Roman Space Telescope with the old design, we will a lot of changes. The WFIRST design which was studied in 2011-2012, features 1.3 m (4.3 ft.) 

It is made similar to the James Webb space telescope. The current design is to create a super stable telescope that will sit out at the L2 Earth-Sun LaGrange point. This is the same sun-blocking position that James Webb uses. It will also use a James Webb-style segmented mirror. Moreover, a coronagraph is also present there to block a star’s bright cores.

Before this design, current ground-based and space base telescopes were limited to detecting young exoplanets (self-luminous). This was million times lighter than their host star and located >0.3 arc seconds away. The Nancy Grace Roman Space Telescope will be capable of detecting planetary companions 10 million times fainter than their host star and located >0.3 arc seconds away. 

Thoughts of the Astrophysics Division Director on the Roman Space Telescope!

The Astrophysics Division Director in the Science Mission Directorate at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC named Dr. Mark Clampin has said that there is more to this mission than just a single new telescope. He shared his views:

“Even though you may at first blush look at it and say,’ Well, this is an exoplanet mission,’ it is not; it is an observatory,” 

Moreover, he said: 

“People are watching how we do on Roman as an example of whether we can do a good job in the future,” Furthermore he stated. “The Roman science is important and it’s also important that we demonstrate that we can stay on track on this telescope as we put it together. That would be my highest priority.”


Published by: Sky Headlines