Scientists have a firm belief that there are millions of planets in our neighboring, Andromeda Galaxy. However, they have only identified one so far, named PA-99-N2, due to a microlensing event in 1999. Therefore, this confirmation makes it the very first extragalactic planet.

Finding planets in space is challenging because they don’t emit their own light. Our technology allows us to find lots of exoplanets in our galaxy. As technology gets better, astronomers might find exoplanets outside our galaxy. In 2010, they found a Jupiter-sized planet in the Andromeda Galaxy and called it HIP 13044 b.

PA-99-N2 vs Jupiter: Let’s Know the Differences & Similarities:

Researchers have found that PA-99-N2 is about 6.34 times the mass of Jupiter, which is roughly 2015.5 times the mass of Earth.
To figure out if life could exist on this planet, we must check if it’s in the “Goldilocks zone” of its star system.

The Evidence of Exoplanets in Andromeda Galaxy:

The habitable zone is like a cosmic sweet spot where a planet has the perfect conditions for liquid water, which is vital for life.

Now, here’s the catch: Andromeda, our distant space neighbor, is so far away that astronomers struggle to gather enough info about its stars and planets. It’s like trying to see something tiny from a very, very long distance.

In simple terms, because of the enormous cosmic gap, scientists can’t determine how many planets exist in the Andromeda galaxy.
It’s a bit like counting stars in the night sky with the lights turned off – a real challenge! As time goes on, scientists will probably create advanced tools to find and study new exoplanets not just in the Andromeda Galaxy but also in distant regions of space.

How Scientists Discovers Such Distant Exoplanets & Stars?

To locate planets in distant galaxies, advanced data processing algorithms are employed. These algorithms work diligently to detect even the tiniest changes in areas as small as a single pixel. Because of the huge distances involved, scientists haven’t been able to show us clear pictures of planets or exoplanets, such as PA-99-N2 faraway places. But they’re not giving up! They’re still on the hunt for life on other planets and finding new planets, keeping our dreams alive for more knowledge in the future.

One exciting possibility is a planet that’s about 6.34 times as massive as Jupiter. If they confirm its existence, it would be a groundbreaking discovery: the first known planet in a different galaxy.

The Twin Quasar Event in History!

A similar occurrence took place in 1996 when a group of astronomers detected an unusual fluctuation in the light curve of the Twin Quasar. This fluctuation appeared to be caused by a planet roughly three times the mass of Earth within the lensing galaxy YGKOW G1. However, the validity of these findings remains uncertain because the fortuitous alignment that led to its identification is unlikely to occur again.
If they confirm PA-99-N2 exoplanet, it would set a mind-blowing record as the farthest known planet which is 4 billion light-years away.

Is PA-99-N2 a planet?

Its discovery was initiated by a microlensing event in 1999, yet astronomers are currently in the process of verifying its existence. Locating planets in the expansive realm of space poses a significant challenge.

How big is PA-99-N2 compared to Earth?

Researchers have stated the mass of the PA-99-N2 to be about 6.34 Jupiter masses. That amounts as 2015.5 to the Earth masses.

Does PA-99-N2 have moons?

In Andromeda, there’s a planet called PA-99-N2 D, orbiting another planet called PA-99-N2, but it’s farther from the center. This planet is either a blue gas giant or an ice giant and has a set of rings that don’t line up and two moons.

What star does PA-99-N2 orbit?

PA-99-N2 b is a planet in another galaxy, Andromeda, that orbits the red giant star PA-99-N2.

Where is PA-99-N2?

PA-99-N2 is a red giant star in the Andromeda Galaxy, located incredibly far away from Earth at about 2,185,247 light-years (or 670,000 parsecs).

Is PA-99-N2 bigger than Jupiter?

In 1999, a microlensing event called PA-99-N2 occurred. It is providing an opportunity to find the first exoplanet. The one having a mass 6.34 times that of Jupiter outside our Milky Way galaxy.

How did Andromeda Galaxy get its name?

The most remarkable aspect of our night sky is the grand Andromeda Galaxy. It is one of the closest galaxies to Earth. And one of the rare galaxies that can be seen without telescopic assistance. Besides this, Andromeda gets its name from the princess of Ethiopia, whom the hero Perseus saved from being sacrificed to the sea monster Cetus, according to Greek mythology.

Some Crisp Facts About Andromeda Galaxy:

One more galaxy you should be aware of, besides our Milky Way, is the Andromeda Galaxy. It’s actually the closest galaxy to us. It’s worth noting that the universe boasts around two trillion galaxies in total. The Andromeda Galaxy is about 2.5 million light-years away from us. Astronomers are really curious about the Andromeda Galaxy because it’s our close space neighbor. Let’s dive into what we know about planets in Andromeda. Similar to our Milky Way Galaxy having the Solar System, the Andromeda Galaxy also harbors many intriguing celestial wonders.

Does Andromeda galaxy planets occur? If so, are they habitate too? Let’s answer your queries in this blog post!

As galaxies fill the universe, there is a belief system that the observable universe holds around two trillion of them. Among these galaxies, the closest one to us is the Andromeda galaxy, located approximately 2.5 million light-years away.

Given its proximity, astronomers are constantly seeking answers to our curiosity about Andromeda. They wonder whether it harbors any planets, and what these planets might look like. And most importantly, whether they could be habitable.

Facts about the Andromeda Galaxy:

  • The Andromeda Galaxy gets its name from the constellation Andromeda, a name after the mythological Greek princess Andromeda.
  • It is believed to be the most massive galaxy in the Local Group, contrary to previous assumptions that the Milky Way held this title due to its dark matter content.
  • A 2006 study revealed that the mass of Andromeda Galaxy planets mass is approximately 80% of the Milky Way’s mass.
  • Andromeda houses around 1 trillion stars, whereas the Milky Way contains about 200-400 billion stars.
  • In about 3.75 billion years, the Andromeda and Milky Way galaxies will collide and merge, forming a giant elliptical galaxy.
  • Astronomers theorize that the Andromeda Galaxy was formed 5 to 9 billion years ago when two smaller galaxies collided and merged.
  • With an apparent magnitude of 3.4, the Andromeda Galaxy is bright enough to be visible to the naked eye on moonless nights.
  • The Andromeda Galaxy is approaching the Milky Way at a speed of approximately 110 kilometers per second (68 mi/s).
  • Furthermore, a microlensing event called PA-99-N2 suggests the possibility of an extragalactic planet, estimation to be 6.34 times as massive as Jupiter. If confirmed, it would be the first exoplanet known to exist beyond the Milky Way.

A Quick Look at the Numbers:

  • Designation/s: Messier 31 (M31), NGC 224
  • Type: Spiral Galaxy
  • Constellation: Andromeda
  • Apparent Magnitude: 3.44
  • Size: 220,000 light-years across
  • Mass: 1,230 billion M☉ (solar masses)
  • Number of Stars: Approximately 1 trillion
  • Distance: 2.5 million light-years

What challenges astronomers are facing in locating the planets?

Currently, there is one very strong candidate planet in the Andromeda Galaxy, temporarily name PA-99-N2, which was detected during a microlensing event in 1999. Astronomers are diligently working to confirm its existence, and if successful, it would become the first officially recognized extragalactic planet ever discovered.

Andromeda Galaxy
Andromeda Galaxy – Credit: David Dayag

While the Andromeda Galaxy likely hosts millions or even billions of planets orbiting its numerous stars, none of them have been fully confirmed as of yet.

Detecting planets beyond our Solar System poses significant challenges because planets do not emit light. All confirmed exoplanets (planets outside the Solar System) are presently found within our galaxy. As our optical technology and data processing techniques continue to improve, we hope to extend our search for planets farther into the universe.

In 2010, several scientific publications reported the discovery of a Jupiter-like planet in the Andromeda Galaxy, known as HIP 13044 b. However, further analysis of the data raised multiple concerns, leading to the rejection of this planet candidate.

What is the likelihood of habitable planets in the Andromeda Galaxy?

As of now, we lack sufficient data about the stars and planets in the Andromeda Galaxy to determine with certainty whether any of its planets can support life. The best chance for a planet to be habitable is for it to be located within the “Goldilocks zone” or habitable zone of its star system.

The Goldilocks zone is the region around a star where a planet’s distance is just right to maintain liquid water on its surface.

Given the vast distance between Earth and the Andromeda galaxy, our knowledge about its stars and planets is not vast. Consequently, we cannot accurately ascertain the number of planets within the habitable zones.

Statistically, however, it is reasonable to infer that some planets in the galaxy might reside in the Goldilocks area of their respective stars. As our imaging techniques and telescopes advance in the future, we hope to confirm or refute these theories, gaining a better understanding of the potential for life within the Andromeda Galaxy.

What are the technological advancements made in Andromeda planets for further discoveries?

As of now, we do not have direct evidence to determine whether there are habitable planets in the Andromeda Galaxy. Due to the immense size of the galaxy and the distance from Earth, it is challenging to study its planets in detail using current technology.

The Andromeda Galaxy contains over a trillion stars, and many of these stars likely have sun-like characteristics, making it reasonable to assume that some of them might have planets. However, without detailed observations, we cannot confirm the presence of habitable planets in the galaxy.

As our technology advances, particularly with the potential development of NASA’s liquid lens telescopes, we hope to gain more detailed insights into the objects within the Andromeda Galaxy. With improved capabilities, we may discover more planets and solar systems in Andromeda in the future.

Regarding the Andromeda constellation, its genitive form, used for naming stars, is Andromeda. The constellation Andromeda from Greek mythology comes after the figure Andromeda. Cassiopeia’s daughter, Andromeda, was chain to a rock for sacrifice to the sea monster Cetus. Additionally, the constellation occupies a position north of the celestial equator.

Andromeda-Milky Way Collision – One of the Closest Galaxy to the Milky Way

The collision between the Andromeda Galaxy and the Milky Way is predict to occur in approximately 4 billion years. This galactic collision will be a momentous event involving the two largest galaxies in the Local Group.

Andromeda, also known as the Andromeda Galaxy, is the closest galaxy to the Milky Way. Therefore, its name originates from the constellation Andromeda, the area of the sky where it appears. Scientists consider Andromeda to be the closest large galaxy to our Milky Way.

Is there any possible planet in andromeda for habitant perspective?

As for the possible planet in the Andromeda galaxy, PA-99-N2, this detection through a microlensing event. Moreover, this event is an astronomical phenomenon, and the reason for this is the gravitational lens effect. Which helps in detecting objects of varying masses, from planets to stars, regardless of the light they emit. Additionally, the exoplanet have a mass approximately 6.34 times that of Jupiter.

While no confirmed data currently exists regarding the existence of planets in the Andromeda galaxy. Statistical inferences suggest the possibility of planets existing within the habitable zones of their stars. Where liquid water could potentially support life.

Since 1995, scientists have found more than 4,000 Earth-like exoplanets. It would surely be your surprise that these planets are outside our solar system. NASA’s Exoplanet Exploration page says the Kepler Space Telescope found most of these.  Astronomers really wanted to find the first “alien Earth.” The Earth-like planets in the Milky Way.  New discoveries show that many small, rocky planets like ours are all over the galaxy.

How Earth-like Exoplanets could Resemble the Earth?

A planet should be small and rocky, like Earth, if it wants to be a good place for life. Besides this, it also needs to be in the right spot around its star, not too hot or too cold. Henceforth, this special spot is sometimes called the “Goldilocks” zone, where it’s just right for liquid water on the planet. As telescopes get better, we’ll also look at other things like what the planet’s air is like and how active its star is.

Earth-like Exoplanets
(Image credit: Nazarii Neshcherenskyi via Getty Images)

Even though finding a planet just like Earth is hard, we’ve found some that are pretty close to being similar to our home.

Earth-like Exoplanets: Let’s Have a Quick Glance!

To answer your quest of how many Earth like planets are there in the universe. We have curated a list of Earth-like exoplanets. So, let’s have a keen and some valuable content!

Gliese 667Cc:

Exoplanets List and Names 2023
An artist’s impression of the surface of Gliese 667Cc. (Image credit: ESO/L. Calçada)

This planet is merely 22 light-years away from us. It’s at least 4.5 times heftier than Earth, as indicated by NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory. This exoplanet whirls around its host star in a mere 28 days, but here’s the twist. The star is a cooler red dwarf. Which is chillier than our sun. This chill factor led scientists to speculate that Gliese 667Cc resides within the habitable zone. Where conditions might allow liquid water to exist.

However, science says that it is one of the Earth-like Exoplanets, but a very noteworthy point arises. Gliese 667Cc was initially detected using the European Southern Observatory’s 3.6-meter telescope in Chile. And it might be positioned too close to the red dwarf. Because the exoplanet is so close to the red dwarf star, it could be in danger of getting heated up by the star’s strong bursts of light called flares.

Kepler-22b:

Kepler-22b is positioned 600 light-years from us. It holds a unique distinction. It clinched the title of being the very first planet discovered by Kepler within its parent star’s habitable zone. However, there’s a catch. It is world dwarfs Earth in size. It is measuring about 2.4 times larger. What remains unclear is the composition of this “super-Earth.” Is it rocky, liquid, or perhaps gaseous? The answer is vague for now!

Besides this, let us tell you an interesting fact too. Kepler-22b’s orbit takes about 290 days, which bears a resemblance to Earth’s 365-day cycle.  Being one the resembled Earth-like Exoplanets, it circles a G-class star, akin to our sun, but with a twist. This star is smaller and cooler compared to our familiar sun.

Habitable Exoplanets
Artist’s illustration of Kepler-69c. (Image credit: NASA Ames/JPL-Caltech/T. Pyle)

This Earth like exoplanet Kepler-22b is located a vast 2,700 light-years away. It presents another enigma. This world succeed the Earth’s size by about 70 percent. However, the makeup of Kepler-69c remains a mystery, much like its counterparts.

Taking a closer look, Kepler-69c takes a brisk 242-day journey to complete one orbit around its star. This places it in a position in its own solar system similar to where Venus resides in ours. An interesting distinction arises in the form of Kepler-69c’s host star. It’s roughly 80 percent as radiant as our sun. Which if giving us a hit of the possibility that this planet snuggles within its star’s habitable realm.

Kepler-62f:

NASA has discovered a planet called Kepler-62f. It is about 40% bigger than Earth. This planet goes around a star that’s cooler than our Sun. It takes 267 days for Kepler-62f to complete one orbit. And it’s in the part of space that’s just right for living things.

Here’s an interesting fact: Even though Kepler-62f is closer to its star than Earth is to the Sun, the star doesn’t give off as much light.

Kepler-62f is quite far away, around 1,200 light-years from us. It’s a good size for a planet, which means it might be rocky like Earth. And there’s a chance it could have oceans, which is pretty exciting!

TRAPPIST -1e:

This planet is just a little bit bigger than Earth, not more than 10% larger. Among the group of planets, one called TRAPPIST-1e stands out. Scientists think it could be a good place for life we know. It’s in the habitable zone, but it’s on the outer edge.

Earth-like Exoplanets
This illustration shows the TRAPPIST exoplanets nearest their star. (Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech)

Then there’s Kepler-186f. It’s different from Earth because it only gets a third of the energy from its star. This planet is about 500 light-years away from us.

Around a star called TRAPPIST-1, there’s an amazing group of planets. They’re the most Earth-sized planets we’ve found in a zone where conditions might be right for life. That is the reason science says it is one the most acceptable Earth-like exoplanets. There are seven of them altogether, and one of these special planets is called TRAPPIST-1e. It’s the most likely place where life could exist, at least as we know it.

Kepler-186f’s:

Habitable Planets
A planet the size of Kepler-186f is likely to be rocky. (Image credit: NASA Ames/JPL-Caltech/T. Pyle)

Kepler-186f’s star is a red dwarf, which makes it not exactly like Earth. This interesting planet is signaling to us from a faraway distance of around 500 light-years.

What exoplanet is most like Earth?

Kepler-452b, occasionally dubbed as Earth 2.0 or Earth’s Cousin due to its features, is a captivating super-Earth exoplanet. This world gracefully revolves along the inner boundaries of its star Kepler-452’s habitable zone. Notably, Kepler-452b stands as the sole inhabitant of this planetary system. Its other identity, Kepler Object of Interest KOI-7016.01, holds relevance in the astronomical community.

Habitable zone
An artist’s impression compares Kepler 452b with Earth. (Image credit: NASA/Ames/JPL-Caltech/T. Pyle)

Are there any Earth-like exoplanets?

  • Gliese 667Cc.
  • Kepler-22b.
  • Kepler-69c.
  • Kepler-62f.
  • Kepler-186f.
  • Kepler-442b.
  • Kepler-452b.
  • Kepler-1649c.

What is the closest Earth-like exoplanets?

Merely four light-years distant, Proxima Centauri b holds the esteemed title of being our nearest known exoplanetary neighbor. This intriguing celestial body, known as Proxima b, falls within the super Earth category. It gracefully orbits an M-type star. Weighing in at 1.27 times the mass of Earth, this exoplanet completes its orbit around its star in a mere 11.2 days. Positioned at a distance of 0.0485 astronomical units (AU) from its star, Proxima b entered our awareness with its discovery announcement in 2016.

Have we found another planet like Earth?

NASA researchers have just unveiled an exciting discovery. They’ve come across a planet known as TOI 700 e, which boasts a striking resemblance to Earth. The size and shape of TOI 700 e are nearly identical to our own planet, standing at about 95%. Adding to its intrigue, this newfound world features a solid, rocky exterior. What’s even more captivating is that TOI 700 e occupies a special place within its star’s habitable zone, suggesting the tantalizing possibility of water existing on its surface.

Does Kepler-452b have humans?

The presence of life on Kepler-452b remains uncertain, yet intriguing parallels with Earth emerge. Notably, this exoplanet shares a resemblance with our own world. Kepler-452b, for instance, takes approximately 385 Earth days to gracefully complete its orbit around its star. This duration is just slightly extended compared to the span of one Earth year.

What habitable planet is 4 light years?

Astronomers have caused quite a stir with their latest revelations about Proxima b—an exoplanet deemed “highly habitable.” This distant world is merely a short 4.2 light-year hop away from Earth. The scientific community is abuzz with excitement as they contemplate the potential significance of this discovery. It’s believed that Proxima b might be making significant impact across the cosmos, as it possesses conditions that could support vast oceans of liquid water.

What other planet can we live on?

In the most recent turn of events, a groundbreaking discovery unfolded. Merely last year, scientists revealed the existence of yet another Earth-like planet. This remarkable world orbits around Proxima Centauri, one of our nearest neighboring stars. Remarkably, this planet stands as the prime contender in our search for a suitable habitat for human life.

Is there a planet like Earth in the habitable zone?

Using information from NASA’s Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite, scientists have done something incredible. They’ve found a planet called TOI 700 e that’s about the same size as Earth. It’s in a good spot around its star, where it’s not too hot or too cold. This special area is where water on a planet could be liquid.

How the Earth-like Exoplanets can Paves the Way in Space Science?

Finding star systems with planets like Earth in this special area is really important. It helps scientists learn more about how our own solar system began.

In the past, many of these planets might have lost their water when they were young. But in 2018, a study suggested that some of these planets could have even more water than Earth’s oceans.

Scientists define the hopeful habitable zone as the area around a star where there could have been liquid water at some point in the past. It goes beyond the more conservative habitable zone, where scientists think liquid water might have been possible for a long time.