River in Mars carried chunks of rocks from somewhere. It happened because NASA’s Perseverance Mars rover drilled this sample action. If you are interested in knowing more about the rocks, and how the river has drilled this action, then continue reading.

What discoveries did NASA’s Perseverance rover make with River in Mars?

On June 23 (the 832nd Martian day, or sol, of the mission), NASA’s Perseverance Mars rover sealed the tube containing its 20th rock core sample, and the mission’s science team is enthusiastic about its possibilities. The six-wheeled geologist is receiving some aid in its search for various rock samples that could be sent to Earth for further study.

This is because this sample was taken by the rover from a rock outcrop made of small fragments of other rocks that were transported here by a river in the distant past and became cemented together.
With each new rock fragment signifying a geologic tale to be told, conglomerates like this one—dubbed “Emerald Lake”, River in Mars, by the team—pack a lot of information about locations the rover may never reach.
“Pebbles and boulders found in a river are messengers from afar,” said Ken Farley, Perseverance project scientist from Caltech in Pasadena.

“And while the water that created the Martian riverbed that Perseverance is currently exploring evaporated billions of years ago, the story carried by those waters remains fresh, stored in conglomerate rock.”

If you are wondering what are perseverance rock samples that are collected for return to Earth and examined to uncover Mars’ history, then the following part is for you!

What can Perseverance’s ‘Otis Peak’ rock core samples reveal about Mars’ past?

These samples are persistently being gathered to be returned to Earth by the NASA-ESA (European Space Agency) Mars Sample Return campaign and examined by lab apparatus that is too huge and sophisticated to be sent to Mars.

Each stone and fragment in this core, known as “Otis Peak,” can be examined by scientists to learn information about its age, the river’s environmental conditions at the time the conglomerate formed, and whether or not it contains evidence of ancient microbial life.

River in Mars is Helping NASA’s Perseverance
NASA’s Perseverance captured this image June 13 of a sample it cored from a conglomerate rock called “Emerald Lake.” This “Otis Peak” core shows distinctly colored areas that are individual minerals transported by a river that once flowed into Jezero Crater.
Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech

Perseverance, now in its third science campaign, is investigating the top of a 130-foot-tall (40-meter) fan-shaped mound of sedimentary rock. The rover is moving toward “Snowdrift Peak,” a low peak, with this sample sealed and kept inside its belly. It will have to travel across a boulder field to get there.

Now, here arises a question in your mind what boulders likely transported by an ancient river on Mars are being considered? If yes, then keep hovering!

Can ancient river-borne boulders hold the key to Mars’ geological secrets?

Scientists think the boulders likely developed somewhere and were moved to their present location billions of years ago by an ancient river, just like the rock fragments in the Otis Peak sample.

Boulders are desirable because of their expansive surface areas, which enable researchers to visually examine a variety of possibly unique rocks in a single photograph. To be prepared to stop for anything that piques their interest, the team will be keeping their options open.

Farley said:

“Whether the boulders appear intriguing enough for closer examination and possible sampling remains to be seen – literally. 

We’re taking a page from the past. Prospectors looking for gold or diamonds in the old days often looked in rivers to determine whether there was any deposit of interest upstream. No need to hike up there to see – let the river do the work!”

If you want to know more about the Boulders that could be a Potential Window into Mars’ Geological History, then the next part of the blog is for you!

Is there a fast-flowing river in Mars?

The Perseverance rover, currently exploring the Jazero crater on Mars, has uncovered evidence of fast-flowing rivers and lakes in the planet’s past. This discovery is prompting scientists to reassess their understanding of the characteristics of ancient Martian watery environments.

Is there an underground lake on Mars?

According to research findings, Mars once possessed a global groundwater system, and several significant planetary features were shaped by the influence of this groundwater. When water ascended to the surface or approached it closely, diverse minerals were deposited, and sediments underwent a cementation process, binding them together to create distinct geological formations.

One of the largest subglacial lakes, comparable in size to Lake Ontario, is Lake Vostok, lying beneath over 2 miles (3 km) of ice. Remarkably, certain subglacial lakes host thriving microorganisms that appear to sustain themselves by consuming minerals present in crushed rock.

Where is water hidden on Mars?

Evidence of an extensive water deposit has been detected beneath the Valles Marineris Martian canyon system by the European Space Agency’s ExoMars orbiter. This canyon system, among the largest in the Solar System, surpassing the Grand Canyon in Arizona by about five times in depth and ten times in length, has provided valuable insights into the presence of water on Mars.

Why did the river in Mars dry up?

For a considerable time, scientists have hypothesized that the loss of carbon dioxide from Mars’ atmosphere played a role in maintaining its warmth and leading to its desiccation. Unlike Earth, Mars lacks tectonic plate movement to bury rocks over extended periods, which has preserved the ancient imprints of surface rivers undisturbed over time.

During its most recent science campaign, the six-wheeled scientist came across the crater while looking for rock samples that could be transported back to Earth for further investigation.

The Mastcam-Z instrument on NASA’s Perseverance rover recently took 152 photos while exploring Belva Crater, a large impact crater within the much larger Jezero Crater. The data, stitched into a stunning mosaic, are not only eye-catching but also provide the rover’s science team with some significant insights into Jezero’s innards.

Where Is Perseverance Right Now?

“Mars rover missions usually end up exploring bedrock in small, flat exposures in the rover’s immediate workspace,” said Katie Stack Morgan, Perseverance’s deputy project scientist at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Southern California. “Our science team was so excited to photograph and study Belva.” Impact craters can provide vast views and vertical incisions that offer vital insights to the origin of these rocks from a perspective and size we don’t usually see.”

On Earth, geology instructors frequently take their students to highway “roadcuts” – areas where construction crews have sliced vertically into the rock to create a way for highways – where they may see rock strata and other geological phenomena that are not apparent from the surface. Impact craters like Belva on Mars can operate as natural roadcuts.

Watermarks from the Past

Perseverance photographed the basin on April 22 (the 772nd Martian day, or sol) while parked slightly west of Belva Crater’s rim on a light-toned rocky outcrop known as “Echo Creek” by the mission’s science team. The 0.6-mile-wide (0.9-kilometer-wide) crater, formed by a meteorite impact ages ago, displays various locations of exposed bedrock and a section where sedimentary layers curve steeply downward.

These “dipping beds” could imply the presence of a massive Martian sandbar made of material that was deposited billions of years ago by a river channel flowing into the lake that previously occupied Jezero Crater.

The science team believes the big rocks in the foreground are either exposed bedrock from the meteorite impact or were brought into the crater by the river system. The scientists will continue to look for answers by comparing features detected in the bedrock near the rover to larger-scale rock layers observed in distant crater walls.

The mission also constructed an anaglyph, or 3D, version of the mosaic to aid in those efforts. “An anaglyph can help us visualize the geologic relationships between crater wall outcrops,” Stack explained. “However, it also provides an opportunity to simply enjoy an incredible view. “I’m transported to the western rim of Belva when I gaze at this mosaic through red-blue 3D glasses, and I wonder what future astronauts would say if they stood where Perseverance previously stood when it took this photo.”

More Information on the Mission

Astrobiology is a primary goal for Perseverance’s mission on Mars, particularly the collection of samples that may include evidence of ancient microbial life. The rover will analyze the planet’s geology and previous climate, paving the groundwork for future human exploration of Mars, and be the first mission to gather and cache Martian rock and regolith.

Subsequent NASA missions would deploy spacecraft to Mars in collaboration with ESA to collect these sealed samples from the surface and return them to Earth for in-depth investigation.

The Mars 2020 Perseverance mission is part of NASA’s Moon to Mars exploration strategy, which includes Artemis Moon missions to help prepare for human exploration of the Red Planet.

JPL, which is overseen by Caltech for NASA, created and operates the Perseverance rover.

After spending more than a year together on Mars, NASA’s Perseverance rover and its traveling “pet rock” have finally parted ways. Despite many strenuous attempts to remove it, the rock had lodged in the rover’s front left wheel on its 341st Martian day and accompanied it for more than half of its stay on the Red Planet. Although the rock did not endanger the rover’s scientific mission, it occasionally interfered with photography. Hitchhiking rocks has caused problems for other Mars rovers, but Perseverance has managed to continue its mission successfully.

The backstory of the “Pet Rock”!

On February 4th, 2022 or Sol 341, Perseverance rover inadvertently acquired a pet rock lodged in its front left wheel. Although the rock did not pose a threat to the rover’s scientific objectives, it intermittently disrupted images and persisted despite attempts to dislodge it through various forceful maneuvers. The situation was aptly compared by mission scientists to “having a pebble stuck in your shoe.”

A Perseverance student collaborator from the University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa Eleni Ravanis wrote a mission update. According to Ravanis: “If this pet rock could talk, it might tell us about the changes it’s noticed as we traveled back north through the Octavia E. Butler landing site, and then west, passing the spectacular remains of the former extent of the delta, ‘Kodiak,’ on our journey to the western Jezero delta,”.

NASA’s Perseverance rover has successfully dislodged a rock that had become lodged in its front left wheel for over a year, akin to a pebble stuck in a shoe. The rock had accompanied the rover for more than half of its mission on Mars. However, this will not be posing any obstacle to the rover’s mission. This separation marks the end of an interesting hitchhiking experience for the rock, and a continued successful mission for the Perseverance rover.

NASA released an image on April 18 (Sol 768) which shows the front left wheel of the Perseverance rover. The image indicates the lodged rock had been dislodged. The rock had been present in the rover’s wheel for approximately 439 days or 427 sols, which accounts for about 55% of the time that the Perseverance rover has been on Mars since its touchdown on February 18, 2021. During their time together, the two of them walked about 6.2 miles (10 kilometers).  It is noteworthy that a sol, or a Martian day, is 37 minutes longer than an Earth day.

Perseverance Rover
Image: NASA/JPL-Caltech/SWNS)

Throughout its mission, the Perseverance rover has accumulated multiple smaller rocks in its various wheels. Yet, all of these were dislodged within a few days or weeks of becoming stuck and did not pose any danger to the rover. But it should be said that rocks that got stuck in other parts of the rover have caused problems in the past.

In December 2021, Perseverance inner machinery was impeded by a cluster of small pebbles, resulting in the rover shutting down for almost a week. Mission scientists had to carefully analyze the situation to determine the best course of action for safely removing the obstructions before the rover could resume its operations.

Now we should also keep this in mind,

Other Rovers who faced the same problems:

The phenomenon of hitchhiking rocks has caused plenty of difficulties for other Mars rovers as well. Just like in December 2004, the operators of NASA’s Spirit rover had to execute a sharp turn to dislodge a “potato-sized” stone from its right-rear wheel. This action was taken because mission scientists were concerned that the rock could cause severe damage to the rover, as confirmed by NASA.


Published by: Sky Headlines

Does it seem like we’re the only living beings in the universe? This is a topic that has captivated us for centuries. The Perseverance rover, developed by NASA, has brought us one step closer to figuring it out. The Perseverance spacecraft was scheduled to launch in July 2020 to find evidence of past Martian life, collect samples to be delivered back to Earth, and also test technology that will be crucial for future human journeys to Mars.

This rover is also helping us move closer to our goal of colonizing other planets by, among other things, looking for fossils of extinct life and experimenting with techniques for producing oxygen on Mars.

The Perseverance, with its state-of-the-art scientific instruments and impressive capabilities, marks a significant milestone in humanity’s quest to discover life on Mars.

Time to get ready for our trip to Mars!

Launch and Journey!

The Perseverance rover took off from Florida’s Cape Canaveral Air Force Station on an Atlas V rocket on July 30, 2020. However,  It took nearly 7 months to go to Mars, a distance of about 293 million miles (471 million kilometers). On February 18, 2021, Perseverance arrived in Mars’s atmosphere and landed in the Jezero Crater, a dried-up lakebed on the red planet.

Features and Capabilities!

With a mass of 2,260 pounds, perseverance is roughly the size of a car (1,025 kilograms). It has a camera system, a laser spectrometer, a robotic arm with a drill and a scoring system, and other high-tech scientific instruments to study Martian soil and rock. A radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) turns the heat produced by the radioactive decay of plutonium into electricity, which is then used to run the rover’s instruments and systems.

Discoveries and Accomplishments!

Perseverance has made tremendous progress in its search for ancient life on Mars. The rover has been investigating Jezero Crater, which scientists believe was once habitable with a river delta and lake. Perseverance revealed the crater’s ancient river delta. Perseverance has been in photographing and chemically analyzing the crater’s rocks and dirt. Organic compounds may indicate life on Mars.

Perseverance is also testing Mars-related technologies. The rover is trying a device to convert carbon dioxide in the Martian atmosphere into oxygen for breathing and rocket propellant. Ingenuity, a small helicopter tested by Perseverance, made the first controlled flight on another planet on April 19, 2021.

Evidence of Ancient Life:

Perseverance Rover has made exciting discoveries in its search for ancient life on Mars. Moreover, Perseverance is exploring the Jezero Crater, which may have had a river delta and lake. The rover uncovered signs of an ancient river delta in the crater, indicating flowing water. Perseverance has also been taking images and chemically analyzing the rocks and soil in the hole and found organic compounds, which could indicate life on Mars.

Ingenuity’s First Flight:

Ingenuity, a small helicopter on Perseverance, tests Mars flying. Ingenuity made the first controlled flight on Mars on April 19, 2021, proving powered flight is viable in the low atmosphere. The 40-second flight advanced our understanding of Mars aerial exploration.

MOXIE’s Oxygen Production:

MOXIE—Mars Oxygen In-Situ Resource Utilization Experiment—is being tested by Perseverance. MOXIE converts Martian carbon dioxide into oxygen for breathing and rocket fuel. Moreover, MOXIE produced 5 grams of oxygen on Mars for the first time in April 2021, enough to sustain a human astronaut for 10 minutes. This was a great breakthrough in the quest for life on Mars.

Sample Collection Technology!

Perseverance Rover can drill Martian soil and rocks. A future mission will retrieve the samples from tubes left on Mars. Perseverance returned the first rock sample from another planet to Earth in June 2021.

Mapping the Martian Surface:

Perseverance also has a high-resolution Martian surface camera. This approach has helped the rover map the Jezero Crater and find scientifically significant locations. Future Mars missions will use Perseverance’s mapping capabilities to find the ideal places to explore and collect samples.

Future Plans!

The spacecraft Perseverance’s mission duration will be at least one Martian year, approximately 687 Earth days. During this period, the rover will continue to investigate the Jezero Crater. Moreover, it will collect soil and rock samples in search of life on Mars. The researchers will also be analyzing samples.

Perseverance will continue to put cutting-edge technologies and scientific probes to the test in the coming months. This is necessary to gain a better understanding of Mars’ past and potential future as a habitable world. Furthermore, NASA’s success in sending the Perseverance rover to Mars is a significant milestone in our exploration of the Red Planet. With its innovative science equipment, cutting-edge technologies, and ambitious mission goals, Perseverance is paving the way for future discoveries and human exploration of Mars.


Published by: Sky Headlines

After it began the construction of the first mars sample depot took less than six weeks to complete its mission. At Southern California in NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the mission controllers received confirmation that the Perseverance Mars rover successfully dropped the 10th and final tube planned for the depot around 5 p.m. PST (8 p.m. EST) Sunday, Jan. 29.

How is this going to help in the research of Mars?

This big achievement was all thanks to precise planning and navigation. This ensures that the tubes could be safely returning back in the future. The NASA-ESA (European Space Agency) Mars rover Sample Return campaign, aims to bring samples from Mars to Earth. This will be very essential for closer examination. Which is going to help in studying Mars’s habitat.

The Perseverance rover’s WATSON camera took this image. It is the 10th and last tube to be deployed during the creation of the first mars sample depot on another world, on Jan. 28, 2023, the 690th Martian day, or sol, of the mission. Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS

During its science campaigns, the rover has collected a pair of samples from rocks regarded as scientifically substantial by the mission team. Scientists have stored one sample from each pair in the organized depot in the “Three Forks” region of Jezero Crater. The depot samples serve as backup. The other half remains inside Perseverance.

One sample from each pair collected thus far is now stored in the nicely organized depot in the “Three Forks” region of Jezero Crater. The Mars sample depot samples will be very useful as a backup set. While the other half will be kept inside Perseverance. This will be the primary means of transporting samples to a Sample Retrieval Lander as part of the campaign.

According to mission scientists, the igneous and sedimentary rock cores will be very beneficial. It will provide an excellent sample of the geologic processes that occurred in Jezero shortly after the crater’s formation about 4 billion years ago.

The rover also left an atmospheric sample and a “witness” tube. This will help to see if the samples being collected are contaminated with materials carried by the rover from Earth.

The “Witness” tube!

The titanium tubes are put on the surface in an intricate zigzag pattern. Each sample spaces about 15 to 50 feet (5 to 15 meters) apart to ensure a safe return. The team must precisely map the location of each 7-inch-long (18.6-centimeter-long) tube and glove (adapter) combination. So that the samples could be found even if covered in dust. However, this was time-consuming in the depot-creation process. On the flat ground near the base of an ancient river delta. This was formed long ago when a river flowed into a lake where the Mars sample depot is located.

Passing the Rocky Top outcrop marks the end of the rover’s Delta Front Campaign because of the geologic transition that occurs at that level. And also the beginning of the rover’s Delta Top Campaign.

Curvilinear Unit:

One of the first stops the Mars rover will make during the new science campaign will be at a location  “Curvilinear Unit” by the science team. The unit, which is essentially a Martian sandbar, is made of sediment that was deposited ages ago in a bend in one of Jezero’s inflowing river channels. The science team believes the Curvilinear Unit will be an excellent location for searching for intriguing sandstone and possibly mudstone outcrops, as well as gaining insight into the geological processes occurring beyond the walls of Jezero Crater.

This map shows where NASA’s Perseverance Mars rover dropped 10 samples so that a future mission could pick them up. After more than five weeks of work, the sample depot was completed Jan. 28, 2023, the 690th day, or sol, of the mission.Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech
This map shows where NASA’s Perseverance Mars rover dropped 10 samples so that a future mission could pick them up. It took more than five weeks of work, the mars sample depot on Jan. 28, 2023, the 690th day, or sol, of the mission.
Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech

What are Rick Welch and Ken Farley’s remarks about this milestone?

Rick Welch is the deputy project manager of JPL. He says that “With the Three Forks depot in our rearview mirror, Perseverance is now headed up the delta,”. Moreover, he said: “We’ll make our ascent via the ‘Hawksbill Gap’ route we previously explored. Once we pass the geologic unit the science team calls ‘Rocky Top,’ we will be in new territory and begin exploring the Delta Top.”

Perseverance project scientist at Caltech “Ken Farley” said: “We found that from the base of the delta up to the level where Rocky Top is located, the rocks appear to have been deposited in a lake environment,”. Moreover, he said: “And those just above Rocky Top appear to have been created in or at the end of a Martian river flowing into the lake. As we ascend the delta into a river setting, we expect to move into rocks that are composed of larger grains – from sand to large boulders. Those materials likely originated in rocks outside Jezero, eroded, and washed into the crater.”


Published by: Sky Headlines

NASA plans to send a group of three mini rovers to the Moon. That is aiming to assess their ability to work together. And not only this, but they also possess the ability to have direct control without the involvement of any humans as controllers on Earth.


Will Robots Overtake the Process of Autonomous Operations?

We call this project CADRE (Cooperative Autonomous Distributed Robotic Exploration). And it also shows an experiment to bring out a new technology. Besides representing an important step towards making the robots capable of doing their operation on their own. They also predict many impressive missions in the future.

What is the Exact Date of the Arrival of Mini Rovers Towards the Moon?

The CADRE mini rovers are scheduled to arrive on the Moon in 2024. As the part of NASA’s CLPS (Commercial Lunar Payload Services) initiative. Besides it, they will be deployed onto the Reiner Gamma region of the Moon using tethers. Moreover, these mini rovers are roughly the size of a carry-on suitcase and equipped with four wheels.

Mini Rovers
A pair of plastic prototypes of the CADRE rovers demonstrate driving in formation during a test at JPL last year. Seven of these “Mercury 7” prototypes were built, each named for one of NASA’s seven Mercury Project astronauts. John (for John Glenn) and Scott (for Scott Carpenter) are shown here. Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech

What Will be the First Step of Mini Rovers Upon Landing?

When they will land on the moon, these mini rovers will see out a suitable spot for sunlight exposure. This spot would be the place where they will extend their solar panels to recharge. Aside this, they will spend an entire moon day, that is equal to about 14 Earth days. And this engagement in various experiments is would evaluate their capabilities too. Now that is impressive!

What is the Core Purpose of Sending Mini Rovers to the Moon?

The foremost goal of this cooperative robotic mission is to see how such missions can potentially enable new scientific discoveries. Or they will be able to provide support for scientists during future moon mission. By taking measurements from multiple locations. These mini rovers will aim to showcase the advantages of teamwork too. And this will be among good robotic systems in space exploration.

Let’s Know More About The Project of Mini Rovers:

The trio of four-wheeled rovers will set their mission by one by one, and they will be seeking out sunny spots to open their solar panels and charge up. And after the completion of this task, they will conduct experiments for a full moon day. Which will be equal to approximately 14 Earth days.

And if we talk about the main aim of the CADRE projects. Then they will demonstrate the effectiveness of a network of mobile robots working together one by one, and they will do it without the need for human intervention.

How Mini Rovers are the Part of NASA’S CLPS? Let’s Find Out!

These rovers are part of NASA’s Commercial Lunar Payload Services (CLPS) initiative. And they are set to reach the Moon’s Reiner Gamma region in 2024.

The focus of doing operations by own is such as impressive feature. While mission controllers on Earth provide a general direction, these rovers  themselves will select a leader too. And allocate tasks among each other to accomplish their collective mission.

The rovers’ high level of autonomy is enabling them to make independent decisions, and these would includes:

  • Coordinating movements
  • Avoiding obstacles
  • Creating 3D images of the moon surface using stereo cameras

What Technical Challenges Would be Faced by Rovers?

Additionally, CADRE aims to assess the rovers’ adaptability in facing technical challenges. The success of this experiment will also highlight many future missions. If you are wondering then they will be specialized in navigating complex and scientifically significant terrains.

Though the primary focus of CADRE is not scientific research. The rovers will carry ground-penetrating radars too. By driving in formation and using radio signal reflections from each other. They will also generate a 3D image of the subsurface that would be around 33 feet below the lunar surface.

And it is quite impressive that this innovative approach would allow these mini rovers to collect more educative data. Which will further help out in the comparison to traditional ground-penetrating radar systems.

CADRE test rover
A CADRE test rover appears to catch the attention of the much larger engineering model of NASA’s Perseverance rover, called OPTIMISM, at JPL’s Mars Yard. CADRE will demonstrate how multirobot missions can record data impossible for a single robot to achieve – a tantalizing prospect for future missions. Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech

What is the Clever Solution to Tackle These Potential Challenges?

The rovers will have the potential challenge of surviving the extreme thermal conditions prevalent at the Moon’s equator. The daytime temperature would be around up to 237 degrees which is Fahrenheit (114 Celsius). And that is why they must possess qualities of robustness, compactness, and lightness.

The CADRE team came up with a clever solution to tackle this challenge. Which will involve the implementation of 30-minute wake-sleep cycles. That is why to cool off and recharge their batteries, the mini rovers will power down every half-hour. And upon waking, they will exchange health status information and select a leader for the upcoming phase of the mission.

Subha Comandur is the CADRE project manager at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Southern California. He said:

“Demonstrating a network of mobile robots can collectively achieve a task without human intervention. This breakthrough has the potential to revolutionize future exploration approaches too. Instead of relying on humans to control each rover, the question for future missions will be: “How many rovers do we send, and what can they achieve together?”

That is why mission controllers on Earth will send a general directive to the rovers’ base station aboard the 13-foot-tall (4-meter-tall) lander. And the team of small robots will then elect a “leader,” responsible for distributing work assignments too. Each of the mini rovers will independently determine the safest and most effective way to complete its designated task.

Three Mini Rovers Will Explore the Moon
Engineer Kristopher Sherrill observes a development model rover during a test for NASA’s CADRE technology demonstration in JPL’s Mars Yard in June. The team tested a new wheel design, surface navigation software, and mobility capabilities, among other aspects of the project. Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech

What is the Collective Team Work & Coordination in Mini Rover’s Mission?

The CADRE project goes beyond just testing autonomy and teamwork capabilities.

  • The mini rovers must also confront the challenge of surviving the harsh thermal conditions near the Moon’s equator. Which is particularly demanding for small robots.
  • In the intense sunlight, these rovers might experience midday temperatures as high as 237 degrees Fahrenheit (114 Celsius).

What is the 30-minute Wake & Sleep Cycle?

In order to prevent the rovers from overheating, the CADRE team devised a good solution. Which is the implementation of 30-minute wake-sleep cycles. Every half-hour, the mini rovers will power down. Which will allow them to cool off with the help of radiators.

Once they wake up, they will communicate their health status with each other through a mesh radio network, through  Wi-Fi network. This information exchange enables them to collectively elect a leader based on fitness for the upcoming task. Then, they embark on another round of lunar exploration.

What Could be the Potential Forecast of Mini Rovers in Scientific Inventions?

The main objective of the mini rovers is to demonstrate how multirobot missions can pave the way for new scientific discoveries. And how they will provide support to astronauts during future moon’s missions. One of the rovers is pictured alongside a much larger engineering model of NASA’s Perseverance rover. This joint effort is expect to showcase the potential benefits and applications of collaborative robotics in space exploration.

NASA Perseverance rover sees the Light on Mars. Let’s uncover some of the important knowledge about this discovery, and see how it does it looks like?

Light on Mars Seen by Peserverance Rover
NASA’s Perseverance Mars rover uses SHERLOC – one of several instruments on the end of its robotic arm – to study rocks in an area nicknamed “Skinner Ridge.” Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech/ASU/MSSS

Perseverance Rover’s SHERLOC & Light on Mars

In a recent study, a cutting-edge tool called SHERLOC—which looks for compounds perhaps connected to ancient life—played a crucial role. Thanks to SHERLOC, a cutting-edge instrument on the rover’s robotic arm, NASA’s Perseverance rover may have discovered a varied assortment of organics during its first 400 days on Mars.

Organics are carbon-based substances thought to be the foundation of life. Whether the chemicals came from biological or geological sources is unknown to the mission’s scientists. Who are looking for proof that the planet formerly hosted microbial life.

Nevertheless, they are interested.

SHERLOC, an acronym for Scanning Habitable Environments with Raman & Light on Mars for Organics & Chemicals, aids researchers in determining whether or not a sample is worthwhile obtaining. The Mars Sample Return campaign therefore requires the equipment to be successful.

The campaign’s initial stage is the Perseverance rover, a joint effort by NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA). It aims to return carefully chosen samples from Mars back to Earth so that they may be investigated there with lab apparatus that is far more sophisticated than that which could be transported to the Red Planet. It would be necessary to return the samples to verify the presence of organics.

mineral mapped across a rock’s surface
Each color in this image represents a different mineral mapped across a rock’s surface. The mineral map was made by the SHERLOC instrument in a test prior to NASA’s Perseverance rover launching to Mars. Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech

What are the SHERLOC’s Powerful Insights & Chemical Composition?

The core of SHERLOC’s capabilities is a method that examines the chemical composition of rocks by examining how they scatter light. An ultraviolet laser is point at the target by the equipment. The Raman effect, a phenomenon that describes how that light on Mars is absorb and then release. It offers a distinct spectral “fingerprint” of various substances.

As a result, scientists are better able to categorize the minerals and organics found in rocks and comprehend the environment in which they arose. For instance, different minerals can occur in saltier water than in fresh water.

SHERLOC uses its WATSON (Wide Angle Topographic Sensor for Operations and Engineering) camera to record the textures of rocks, then adds information to the photos to produce spatial maps of the chemicals present on the rock’s surface. The results have been as encouraging as the instrument’s science team had hoped, as described in a recent report in Nature.

Within a rock target called “Garde,” different kinds of carbon-based molecules called organic compounds were viewed by SHERLOC, one of the instruments on the end of the robotic arm aboard NASA’s Perseverance Mars rover. Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS/LANL/PhotonSys

Can SHERLOC Rocks Preserving the Evidence of Martian Life & Light on Mars?

A lead author Sunanda Sharma of NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Southern California. JPL built SHERLOC along with the Perseverance rover, said:

“These detections are an exciting example of what SHERLOC can find. And they’re helping us understand how to look for the best samples”

Gale Crater, 2,300 miles (3,700 kilometers) from Perseverance. It has been verified to contain organic molecules numerous times by NASA’s Curiosity rover. Which landed on Mars in 2012. SAM, or the Sample Analysis of light on Mars. It is an equipment inside Curiosity that burns up powderized rock samples. And analyzes the vapor that results.
Scientists on Perseverance are searching for rocks. That may have preserved evidence of prehistoric microbial life, therefore they want to conserve the samples for further examination on Earth.

SHERLOC’s Intriguing Discoveries in Quartier and Beyond

Ten rock targets that SHERLOC researched are examine in the new Nature paper, including “Quartier.”

“We see a set of signals that are consistent with organics in the data from Quartier.”

The science team determines whether to use the rover’s drill to core a rock sample that is roughly the size of a piece of blackboard chalk when data from SHERLOC and other equipment appears promising. Following Quartier’s analysis, they took “Robine” and “Malay” rock-core

Light on Mars
This close-up view of the SHERLOC instrument located at the end of the robotic arm on NASA’s Perseverance rover was captured prior to the rover’s launch to Mars.
Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech

samples from the same rock, making a total of two of the 20 core samples thus far.

Finding the most organic molecules doesn’t necessarily indicate a good target from which to take a sample. In the end, the researchers from Perseverance hope to gather a set of samples. That is typical of all the many regions that can be found in Jezero Crater.

Mars’ Past through Sample Analysis and Contextual Insight

Future researchers who examine these samples will be able to put them into context. By knowing what changes might have happened surrounding any samples. That might show evidence of prehistoric life, and light on Mars.

“The value comes from the sum rather than any individual sample,” Sharma said. “Pointillism is a good analogy for this. We’re eventually going to step back and see the big picture of how this area formed.”


In a truly remarkable collaboration between LEGO and NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), an awe-inspiring STEM-inspired building set has been crafted, igniting the curiosity and passion for engineering and space exploration among children. This captivating creation, the Ingenuity helicopter aims to captivate young minds and spark their interest in the universe’s wonders. Based on the real Perseverance rover and Ingenuity helicopter currently exploring Mars’ Jezero Crater, this innovative kit has been making its way into homes worldwide, bringing the wonders of space exploration closer to young enthusiasts.

Ingenuity Helicopter Inspiring Space Explorers

The LEGO Technic building set results from extensive consultations between LEGO designers and JPL engineers, who shared valuable insights into constructing these extraordinary space machines. Developed in collaboration with the Office of Technology Transfer and Corporate Partnerships at Caltech, which oversees JPL for NASA, the kit represents another successful endeavor within the Technology Affiliates Program. This program encourages industry partnerships and allows companies to leverage JPL’s intellectual property or collaborate with renowned scientists and engineers to tackle diverse technological challenges.

Fostering STEM Education

Drawing on NASA’s long-standing alliance with LEGO, this building set offers aspiring builders the opportunity to delve into the intricate details of the Perseverance Rover. By examining its mobility system and science instruments and interacting with simulated data transmitted by the rover, users gain an immersive experience that fosters scientific curiosity and a deeper understanding of space exploration.
Notably, since landing on Mars in February 2021, the Perseverance rover has embarked on a groundbreaking mission to search for evidence of ancient microbial life. It has collected rock and soil samples that will be returned to Earth by a future mission. Meanwhile, the Ingenuity helicopter achieved a groundbreaking milestone by becoming the first powered and controlled aircraft to take flight on another planet. With over 50 successful flights, Ingenuity has provided valuable aerial insights into the Red Planet.

Ingenuity Helicopter and Young Enthusiasts

Laurie Leshin, Director of JPL, expressed her enthusiasm for inspiring young minds, stating, “Our trips to Mars started with a plan so big that many people thought it was impossible. With great success, we’ve accomplished the incredible feat of safely landing rovers and even a helicopter on the enigmatic terrain of Mars. Our missions aim to delve into the intricate details of the planet’s climate, geology, and potential for hosting life, unveiling the captivating mysteries of the Red Planet. At JPL, we try to answer amazing science questions by dreaming big and pushing the limits. I hope that these kinds of toys will give kids the same sense of adventure that we have at NASA’s JPL.”

Ingenuity Helicopter LEGO Collaboration

Scott Hulme, a Mars public engagement expert at JPL, highlighted the significance of partnerships like this, emphasizing how they enhance the enjoyment and accessibility of space exploration for the upcoming generation of explorers. He expressed his enthusiasm for sharing the remarkable endeavours of Perseverance and Ingenuity on Mars, underscoring the value of collaborations as an additional avenue for fostering interest and engagement in space exploration.

The successful partnership between LEGO and JPL promotes education and excitement about space exploration and exemplifies the growing trend of private-public collaborations in pursuing scientific advancement. By working closely with JPL’s technology transfer offices and programs, companies can forge strategic alliances, enabling the sale of intellectual property, as demonstrated by LEGO, or facilitating access to JPL’s exceptional talent pool to address various technological challenges. These joint projects offer JPL enhanced opportunities to engage with the private sector, ultimately benefiting people on Earth and fostering an enduring fascination with space exploration.

In conclusion, introducing the LEGO Technic building set inspired by NASA-JPL’s Perseverance rover and Ingenuity helicopter is a powerful tool to captivate young minds and cultivate a passion for engineering, space, and scientific exploration. By enabling children to embark on their space adventures from the comfort of their homes, this collaboration promotes the spirit of curiosity, innovation, and the boundless potential of human achievement.

Following its groundbreaking cloud-imaging mission last month, NASA’s Curiosity rover continues to astound scientists with captivating observations, including the recent discovery of a hardcover-shaped feature on April 15, marking the mission’s 3,800th Martian day (or sol). Geologists, akin to meticulous librarians, carefully examine the evidence surrounding them to unravel the mysteries of Mars’ past. NASA officials suggest that the distinctive shape of rocks like this one is typically attributed to water flowing through the region billions of years ago, during a time when the Red Planet boasted a significantly wetter environment.

What did JPL reveal about the discovery regarding wind erosion?

The world is now considerably drier and windier. “After eons of being sand-blasted by the wind, softer rock is carved away, and the harder materials are all that’s left,” NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Southern California, which manages Curiosity’s mission, revealed of the discovery on Thursday (May 11).

J. Paul Getty Museum:

While writing is supposed to have started in ancient Sumer (near the modern-day Persian Gulf) some 5,400 years ago, the manner in which humans record information is numerous, according to the J. Paul Getty Museum. 

What is the argument presented by the 2023 study regarding the “dots” in a cave picture?

One 2023 study argues that the “dots” in a cave picture could be a kind of writing from 20,000 years ago, while the conclusion is debatable. Modern forms of writing have been placed on rock walls, clay tablets, and scrolls, to name a few reading styles. 

British Library:

According to the British Library, what we now term “books” began with codices, initially as wax tablets and subsequently as parchment in the Mediterranean and Mesopotamian areas. Dating is difficult, but the format has been quite common in Greco-Roman times, if not before.

According to JPL, Curiosity has been exploring Mars’ Gale Crater since August 2012, with critical results in science papers including the discovery of persistent liquid water on ancient Mars, potential evidence of old life through organics, and examinations of radiation at the surface.

What is the purpose of the Perseverance mission on Mars?

Perseverance, a successor mission, is working in the Jezero Crater area of Mars, caching tubes (or lightsabers) of samples for future return to Earth. The sample return effort is scheduled to pick up with the launch of a relay spacecraft and a handful of mini-helicopters in the late 2020s.

Cacao, an iron-nickel space rock, is about 1 foot (0.3 meters) wide. Another metallic meteorite on Mars has been discovered by NASA’s Curiosity rover.

On February 2, Curiosity team members on Tweets. The team describes the structure meteorite and announced its name in the tweet. According to the tweet Cacao is about 1 foot (0.3 meters) wide. It consists primarily of iron and nickel.

When did Curiosity go to Mars?

In August 2012, the car-sized rover “Curiosity” landed on Mars’ 96-mile-wide (154-kilometer) Gale Crater, on a mission to determine whether the area could have supported Earth-like life long ago.

Curiosity research and findings have helped the research team to answer a lot of questions. One of which is demonstrating that Gale once hosted a potentially habitable lake-and-stream system. Furthermore, this watershed likely lasted for millions of years, possibly allowing time for the emergence of Martian microbes. Curiosity also finds a metallic meteorite on Mars.

The rover is not specifically looking for evidence of past or present microbial life on Mars. However, Curiosity’s cousin Perseverance, which landed in a different Mars crater in February 2021, is searching for life and collecting dozens of samples for future return to Earth.

What is the current status of the Curiosity rover?

Curiosity has been climbing the flanks of Mount Sharp, a massive massif that rises about 3.4 miles (5.5 kilometers) into the sky from Gale’s center, since September 2014.

The rover recently reached sulfate-rich veins that started in fairly dry situations, marking a significant breakthrough on this journey.

Curiosity has been observing specific rocks and the metallic meteorite on Mars. These observations may improve scientists’ understanding of Gale Crater and Mars. They aim to learn when and how Mars transformed from a warm and wet environment to a freezing desert. This information is provided by members of the Curiosity mission team.

According to the report, Curiosity has so far driven 18.31 miles (29.47 km) on Mars. Several other metallic meteorites have been discovered by the car-size rover during its grand space journey, as the research team noted in several other photo-filled tweets on Thursday.

Tweets on metallic meteorite on Mars!

Along with a photo of the Curiosity team wrote on Twitter: “We’re calling it ‘Cacao,’ “.

Thursday’s Tweet says: “Here’s another meteorite I found in 2016. It’s called ‘Egg Rock,’ aka the golf ball,” Another Thursday tweet reads: “And while my team calls this 7-foot-long meteorite ‘Lebanon,’ I call it THE BEAST,”

On May 2014 Curiosity discovered Lebanon or The Beast. However, NASA didn’t release images of the massive rock until July of that year. Curiosity discovered the Beast and two nearby stones as the first Metallic meteorite on Mars.


Published by: Sky Headlines