Since 1995, scientists have found more than 4,000 Earth-like exoplanets. It would surely be your surprise that these planets are outside our solar system. NASA’s Exoplanet Exploration page says the Kepler Space Telescope found most of these.  Astronomers really wanted to find the first “alien Earth.” The Earth-like planets in the Milky Way.  New discoveries show that many small, rocky planets like ours are all over the galaxy.

How Earth-like Exoplanets could Resemble the Earth?

A planet should be small and rocky, like Earth, if it wants to be a good place for life. Besides this, it also needs to be in the right spot around its star, not too hot or too cold. Henceforth, this special spot is sometimes called the “Goldilocks” zone, where it’s just right for liquid water on the planet. As telescopes get better, we’ll also look at other things like what the planet’s air is like and how active its star is.

Earth-like Exoplanets
(Image credit: Nazarii Neshcherenskyi via Getty Images)

Even though finding a planet just like Earth is hard, we’ve found some that are pretty close to being similar to our home.

Earth-like Exoplanets: Let’s Have a Quick Glance!

To answer your quest of how many Earth like planets are there in the universe. We have curated a list of Earth-like exoplanets. So, let’s have a keen and some valuable content!

Gliese 667Cc:

Exoplanets List and Names 2023
An artist’s impression of the surface of Gliese 667Cc. (Image credit: ESO/L. Calçada)

This planet is merely 22 light-years away from us. It’s at least 4.5 times heftier than Earth, as indicated by NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory. This exoplanet whirls around its host star in a mere 28 days, but here’s the twist. The star is a cooler red dwarf. Which is chillier than our sun. This chill factor led scientists to speculate that Gliese 667Cc resides within the habitable zone. Where conditions might allow liquid water to exist.

However, science says that it is one of the Earth-like Exoplanets, but a very noteworthy point arises. Gliese 667Cc was initially detected using the European Southern Observatory’s 3.6-meter telescope in Chile. And it might be positioned too close to the red dwarf. Because the exoplanet is so close to the red dwarf star, it could be in danger of getting heated up by the star’s strong bursts of light called flares.

Kepler-22b:

Kepler-22b is positioned 600 light-years from us. It holds a unique distinction. It clinched the title of being the very first planet discovered by Kepler within its parent star’s habitable zone. However, there’s a catch. It is world dwarfs Earth in size. It is measuring about 2.4 times larger. What remains unclear is the composition of this “super-Earth.” Is it rocky, liquid, or perhaps gaseous? The answer is vague for now!

Besides this, let us tell you an interesting fact too. Kepler-22b’s orbit takes about 290 days, which bears a resemblance to Earth’s 365-day cycle.  Being one the resembled Earth-like Exoplanets, it circles a G-class star, akin to our sun, but with a twist. This star is smaller and cooler compared to our familiar sun.

Habitable Exoplanets
Artist’s illustration of Kepler-69c. (Image credit: NASA Ames/JPL-Caltech/T. Pyle)

This Earth like exoplanet Kepler-22b is located a vast 2,700 light-years away. It presents another enigma. This world succeed the Earth’s size by about 70 percent. However, the makeup of Kepler-69c remains a mystery, much like its counterparts.

Taking a closer look, Kepler-69c takes a brisk 242-day journey to complete one orbit around its star. This places it in a position in its own solar system similar to where Venus resides in ours. An interesting distinction arises in the form of Kepler-69c’s host star. It’s roughly 80 percent as radiant as our sun. Which if giving us a hit of the possibility that this planet snuggles within its star’s habitable realm.

Kepler-62f:

NASA has discovered a planet called Kepler-62f. It is about 40% bigger than Earth. This planet goes around a star that’s cooler than our Sun. It takes 267 days for Kepler-62f to complete one orbit. And it’s in the part of space that’s just right for living things.

Here’s an interesting fact: Even though Kepler-62f is closer to its star than Earth is to the Sun, the star doesn’t give off as much light.

Kepler-62f is quite far away, around 1,200 light-years from us. It’s a good size for a planet, which means it might be rocky like Earth. And there’s a chance it could have oceans, which is pretty exciting!

TRAPPIST -1e:

This planet is just a little bit bigger than Earth, not more than 10% larger. Among the group of planets, one called TRAPPIST-1e stands out. Scientists think it could be a good place for life we know. It’s in the habitable zone, but it’s on the outer edge.

Earth-like Exoplanets
This illustration shows the TRAPPIST exoplanets nearest their star. (Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech)

Then there’s Kepler-186f. It’s different from Earth because it only gets a third of the energy from its star. This planet is about 500 light-years away from us.

Around a star called TRAPPIST-1, there’s an amazing group of planets. They’re the most Earth-sized planets we’ve found in a zone where conditions might be right for life. That is the reason science says it is one the most acceptable Earth-like exoplanets. There are seven of them altogether, and one of these special planets is called TRAPPIST-1e. It’s the most likely place where life could exist, at least as we know it.

Kepler-186f’s:

Habitable Planets
A planet the size of Kepler-186f is likely to be rocky. (Image credit: NASA Ames/JPL-Caltech/T. Pyle)

Kepler-186f’s star is a red dwarf, which makes it not exactly like Earth. This interesting planet is signaling to us from a faraway distance of around 500 light-years.

What exoplanet is most like Earth?

Kepler-452b, occasionally dubbed as Earth 2.0 or Earth’s Cousin due to its features, is a captivating super-Earth exoplanet. This world gracefully revolves along the inner boundaries of its star Kepler-452’s habitable zone. Notably, Kepler-452b stands as the sole inhabitant of this planetary system. Its other identity, Kepler Object of Interest KOI-7016.01, holds relevance in the astronomical community.

Habitable zone
An artist’s impression compares Kepler 452b with Earth. (Image credit: NASA/Ames/JPL-Caltech/T. Pyle)

Are there any Earth-like exoplanets?

  • Gliese 667Cc.
  • Kepler-22b.
  • Kepler-69c.
  • Kepler-62f.
  • Kepler-186f.
  • Kepler-442b.
  • Kepler-452b.
  • Kepler-1649c.

What is the closest Earth-like exoplanets?

Merely four light-years distant, Proxima Centauri b holds the esteemed title of being our nearest known exoplanetary neighbor. This intriguing celestial body, known as Proxima b, falls within the super Earth category. It gracefully orbits an M-type star. Weighing in at 1.27 times the mass of Earth, this exoplanet completes its orbit around its star in a mere 11.2 days. Positioned at a distance of 0.0485 astronomical units (AU) from its star, Proxima b entered our awareness with its discovery announcement in 2016.

Have we found another planet like Earth?

NASA researchers have just unveiled an exciting discovery. They’ve come across a planet known as TOI 700 e, which boasts a striking resemblance to Earth. The size and shape of TOI 700 e are nearly identical to our own planet, standing at about 95%. Adding to its intrigue, this newfound world features a solid, rocky exterior. What’s even more captivating is that TOI 700 e occupies a special place within its star’s habitable zone, suggesting the tantalizing possibility of water existing on its surface.

Does Kepler-452b have humans?

The presence of life on Kepler-452b remains uncertain, yet intriguing parallels with Earth emerge. Notably, this exoplanet shares a resemblance with our own world. Kepler-452b, for instance, takes approximately 385 Earth days to gracefully complete its orbit around its star. This duration is just slightly extended compared to the span of one Earth year.

What habitable planet is 4 light years?

Astronomers have caused quite a stir with their latest revelations about Proxima b—an exoplanet deemed “highly habitable.” This distant world is merely a short 4.2 light-year hop away from Earth. The scientific community is abuzz with excitement as they contemplate the potential significance of this discovery. It’s believed that Proxima b might be making significant impact across the cosmos, as it possesses conditions that could support vast oceans of liquid water.

What other planet can we live on?

In the most recent turn of events, a groundbreaking discovery unfolded. Merely last year, scientists revealed the existence of yet another Earth-like planet. This remarkable world orbits around Proxima Centauri, one of our nearest neighboring stars. Remarkably, this planet stands as the prime contender in our search for a suitable habitat for human life.

Is there a planet like Earth in the habitable zone?

Using information from NASA’s Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite, scientists have done something incredible. They’ve found a planet called TOI 700 e that’s about the same size as Earth. It’s in a good spot around its star, where it’s not too hot or too cold. This special area is where water on a planet could be liquid.

How the Earth-like Exoplanets can Paves the Way in Space Science?

Finding star systems with planets like Earth in this special area is really important. It helps scientists learn more about how our own solar system began.

In the past, many of these planets might have lost their water when they were young. But in 2018, a study suggested that some of these planets could have even more water than Earth’s oceans.

Scientists define the hopeful habitable zone as the area around a star where there could have been liquid water at some point in the past. It goes beyond the more conservative habitable zone, where scientists think liquid water might have been possible for a long time.

Kepler 209 is an exoplanet similar to Neptune. Moreover, it orbits a G-type star. It’s 5.73 times the mass of Earth, and takes 16.1 days to complete one orbit around its star. Additionally, it positioned 0.122 astronomical units (AU) away from its star. Its discovery was announced in 2014.

Quick Facts & Details:

Kepler-209 is not visible to the naked eye. It has two planets, Kepler-209 b and Kepler-209 c. Moreover, it was discovered in 2014. This star is a G7-type yellow dwarf, slightly smaller and lighter than our Sun, with an estimated age between 1.95 and 7.77 billion years.

This exoplanet is in the Lyra constellation, positioned below the wing of the Swan (Cygnus). It’s located about halfway between Deneb and Vega stars, in the region between Fawaris and Delta Lyrae. In the same part of the sky, you can also see the barred spiral galaxy NGC 6792.

Journey to Kepler 209
Kepler-209, Image credit: Wikisky

The History Behind Its Discovery:

The Simbad Astronomical Database labels Kepler-209 as a variable star, meaning it changes in brightness due to surface irregularities and rotation. In 2014, two Neptune-like planets, Kepler-209 b and Kepler-209 c, were discovered orbiting this star. These planets were found using the transit method and confirmed by a team led by Jason F. Rowe at NASA’s Ames Research Center, with the results published in The Astrophysical Journal on March 4, 2014.

Let’s Dig Deep into the Details of Kepler 209 b & Kepler 209 c:

This exoplanet is a gas giant planet similar to Neptune. It orbits its parent star every 16.09 days, at a distance of 0.122 astronomical units. This planet has a mass equal to 5.73 times that of Earth and a radius measuring 0.202 times that of Jupiter.

Another planet, Kepler-209 c, is situated farther from the star, with an orbit period of 41.7 days and a distance of 0.231 astronomical units. It has a mass equivalent to 9.8 Earth masses and a radius equal to 0.277 times the radius of Jupiter.

Both of these planets, Kepler-209 b and Kepler-209 c, do not orbit within the star’s habitable zone. The habitable zone is the region around a star where conditions could allow for liquid water on a planet’s surface. Unfortunately, these planets are too close to Kepler-209 for liquid water to exist, making them unlikely to be habitable.

Kepler Space Telescope:

A third planet called KOI-672.03 was initially thought to be in the system but turned out to not to be true. This star doesn’t have a regular name. It was found during NASA’s Kepler mission, which aimed to find planets outside our solar system, especially those like Earth in size and location. The Kepler space telescope focused on specific parts of the sky in constellations like Cygnus, Draco, and Lyra. Over its 9-year mission, it discovered many exoplanets. However, it was retired in 2018 due to running out of fuel.

location of Kepler 209
The location of Kepler-209, Image: Stellarium

Kepler’s work greatly improved our knowledge of planets and the cosmos. Its legacy is an extensive list of possible planets in a specific part of the sky. Following Kepler, two other space telescopes continued its mission: TESS and JWST. This exoplanet is listed as KOI 672 in the Kepler Objects of Interest (KOI) catalog, which is the final catalog of potential exoplanets discovered by Kepler.

The Habitable Fact of Kepler 209:

NASA sent the Kepler spacecraft into space in 2009 to find Earth-sized planets around stars like our Sun in regions where life could potentially exist. It did this by looking for stars with regular signals that hinted at planets passing in front of them or binary systems with eclipses. When these planets crossed in front of their stars, Kepler noticed a slight decrease in starlight. Before it was retired, Kepler discovered 2,662 exoplanets by studying 530,506 stars. The space telescope was named after the famous astronomer Johannes Kepler, known for his work on how planets move around the Sun in the 17th century.

Deneb, Vega, and Altair form the Summer Triangle, and they’re easy to spot. Deneb is at the top of the Northern Cross, visible high in the sky during the northern hemisphere summer. Altair is between two relatively bright stars, Tarazed and Alshain, and Vega is near a fainter parallelogram that outlines the celestial Harp.

Constellation Lyra Details That You Didn’t Know Earlier:

This exoplanet is found in the Lyra constellation, also known as the Harp. This constellation dates back to the Greek astronomer Ptolemy in the 2nd century CE. It’s associated with the lyre of Orpheus, a famous poet and musician in Greek mythology. According to the story, Orpheus met a tragic end, but Zeus placed him and his lyre in the night sky.

Kepler 209
Lyra constellation map by IAU and Sky & Telescope magazine

Lyra is a small constellation, covering 286 square degrees in the northern sky, ranking 52nd in size out of 88 constellations. You can spot it near the larger constellations Hercules and Cygnus.

Is Kepler-209 a real planet?

This exoplanet is a Neptune-like planet orbiting a G-type star. It’s about 5.73 times the mass of Earth, takes 16.1 days to complete one orbit around its star. Besides this, it is situated at a distance of 0.122 astronomical units (AU) from the star.

How far is Kepler-209 from Earth?

This star is situated approximately 1,913.5 light-years (or 586.7 parsecs) from our Solar System. Additionally, it has an apparent brightness level of 12.8 in the sky and an absolute brightness of 4.0.

Where is planet Kepler-209?

This exoplanet is quite far from our Solar System, about 1,881 light-years away. Its discovery was made public in 2014. It has a brightness level of 12.8 in the sky, with an absolute brightness of 4.0.

Can humans land on Kepler?

Visiting Kepler-452b for NASA or humans is not possible. Moreover, it is due to the enormous distance of 1,400 light-years that separates us from this planet.

Koi 4878 is one of the most similar exoplanets to the Earth. It was primarily detected by Kepler’s mission. So, let’s have a look at some of the significant features of this planet, and uncover why this planet is most intrigued by the scientists.

Location from the Earth:

It is located around 1075 light years away from Earth. This planet is quite similar to Earth, with a 98% Earth Similarity Index rating if confirmed. It takes about 449 Earth days for KOI-4878.01 to complete one orbit around its star, and it’s likely in the star’s habitable zone.

High Earth Similarity to the Earth:

KOI-4878.01 stands out with a remarkable Earth Similarity Index of 98%, the highest ever recorded. While its characteristics closely resemble those of Earth, it’s important to note that its status as an Earth analog remains unconfirmed. The planet completes a full orbit around its host star every 449 Earth days. This star, an F-type main-sequence star, is slightly larger (about 5%) than our Sun and has a temperature of roughly 6031 K. Nevertheless, it’s worth mentioning that a high Earth Similarity Index doesn’t guarantee habitability.

Koi-4878.01 Temperature:

Its mass falls within the range of 0.4 to 3.0 Earth masses, with a probable estimate of around 0.99 Earth masses. The planet has a slightly larger radius (1.04) and maintains an equilibrium temperature of 256 K (-16.5 °C; 2.3 °F), remarkably close to Earth’s equilibrium temperature of 255 K (-18 °C; -1 °F). If its atmosphere resembles Earth’s, KOI-4878.01 would likely experience an average surface of 291 K (17.85°C; 64.13 °F), slightly warmer than Earth’s average.

Comparison with Earth (Quick Facts, Highlighting Exoplanet’s)

  • Orbital period 449.01499
  • Mass ~0.99
  • Radius 1.04
  • Semi-major axis 1.12 AU
  • Equilibrium temperature 256 K (-16.5 °C; 2.3 °F)

The Detection of Koi 4878  Through Kepler Mission:

Before the Kepler mission began, there was optimism about identifying a few potential Earth-like planets. However, during its primary mission from May 2009 to May 2013, Kepler discovered a total of 2,345 confirmed exoplanets (and the count continues), but none of them could be classified as true Earth analogs. Most of the planets Kepler found during its primary mission were larger and had short orbits around stars smaller than our Sun. These types of planets are not only more common than Earth-like ones but are also easier to detect.

The closest Kepler came to Earth-like discoveries were Kepler 186f and Kepler 442b. Regrettably, these planets are somewhat larger than Earth, rotate slowly or are tidally locked, and orbit dim M and K type stars, respectively. While they might have habitable conditions, they don’t closely resemble Earth.

The Prior Names of Koi 4878 in the Initial Stages of its Discovery:

The Kepler Input Catalog (KIC) included KOI-4878 and designated it as KIC-11804437 when selecting the star field for observation. Researchers estimated KOI-4878 to possess an effective temperature of approximately 6031 K, making it hotter than the Sun. This temperature classification classifies it as a late F-type star. They calculated its radius to be about 1.068 times that of the Sun, and its mass was roughly equivalent to 0.972 times that of the Sun. These parameters resulted in an estimated luminosity approximately 1.35 times that of the Sun, and scientists estimated the star to be situated at a distance of around 1,200 light years away.

Calculation of Effective Stellar Flux:

By integrating the results from Kepler’s analysis with the KIC’s host star property estimates, it becomes possible to deduce the characteristics of KOI-4878.01. Assuming the orbital period equals the time between transits, the semimajor axis of KOI-4878.01’s orbit would be approximately 1.137 +0.053/-0.040 astronomical units (AU), with the uncertainty primarily driven by the host star’s mass uncertainty.

When we combine this value with the estimated brightness of KOI-4878, we calculate that the effective stellar flux received by this planet candidate (Seff) is strikingly similar to Earth’s at 1.05, making it very Earth-like in this aspect. Considering the depth of the transit and KOI-4878’s estimated size, the exoplanet would likely have a radius around 1.04 +0.38/-0.14 times that of Earth.

How is KOI-4878.01 compared to Earth?

KOI-4878.01 holds a remarkable Earth Similarity Index of 98%, marking it as the most Earth-like exoplanet discovered to date.

Is Koi 5715.01 real?

The planet KOI 5715.01, is among a select group of 24 ‘superhabitable’ planets within our galaxy. The astronomers have pinpointed as potentially more suitable for life as we understand it compared to Earth.

What is the closest habitable planet to Earth?

The closest extrasolar planets to Earth are Proxima Centauri b, c, and d, all situated at a distance of 4.22 light years away. Among them, Proxima b is the nearest potentially habitable planet to Earth.

Is KOI-4878 real?

KOI-4878.01, an exoplanet candidate, revolves around the F-type main-sequence star KOI-4878. If its existence is verified, it would stand as one of the most Earth-like planets ever discovered.

Can we live on koi planet?

KOI-314c exhibits an exceptionally low density when compared to Earth, being just 30 percent denser than water. Consequently, its surface would not support walking, and it is far too hot for human habitation.

What’s Next?

Future observations of KOI-4878 will assist astronomers in refining its characteristics. However, confirming KOI-4878.01 as a planet would greatly benefit from additional transit observations. Unfortunately, ground observatories are unlikely to obtain the necessary data with the required precision. It is due to the relatively small brightness change of just 94 ppm during a 13-hour transit.

While NASA’s Hubble could potentially provide the needed data, making a case for observing KOI-4878. It is among the thousands of challenging Kepler planet candidates. Because these telescopes are in high demand for various astronomical tasks!

Scientists have a firm belief that there are millions of planets in our neighboring, Andromeda Galaxy. However, they have only identified one so far, named PA-99-N2, due to a microlensing event in 1999. Therefore, this confirmation makes it the very first extragalactic planet.

Finding planets in space is challenging because they don’t emit their own light. Our technology allows us to find lots of exoplanets in our galaxy. As technology gets better, astronomers might find exoplanets outside our galaxy. In 2010, they found a Jupiter-sized planet in the Andromeda Galaxy and called it HIP 13044 b.

PA-99-N2 vs Jupiter: Let’s Know the Differences & Similarities:

Researchers have found that PA-99-N2 is about 6.34 times the mass of Jupiter, which is roughly 2015.5 times the mass of Earth.
To figure out if life could exist on this planet, we must check if it’s in the “Goldilocks zone” of its star system.

The Evidence of Exoplanets in Andromeda Galaxy:

The habitable zone is like a cosmic sweet spot where a planet has the perfect conditions for liquid water, which is vital for life.

Now, here’s the catch: Andromeda, our distant space neighbor, is so far away that astronomers struggle to gather enough info about its stars and planets. It’s like trying to see something tiny from a very, very long distance.

In simple terms, because of the enormous cosmic gap, scientists can’t determine how many planets exist in the Andromeda galaxy.
It’s a bit like counting stars in the night sky with the lights turned off – a real challenge! As time goes on, scientists will probably create advanced tools to find and study new exoplanets not just in the Andromeda Galaxy but also in distant regions of space.

How Scientists Discovers Such Distant Exoplanets & Stars?

To locate planets in distant galaxies, advanced data processing algorithms are employed. These algorithms work diligently to detect even the tiniest changes in areas as small as a single pixel. Because of the huge distances involved, scientists haven’t been able to show us clear pictures of planets or exoplanets, such as PA-99-N2 faraway places. But they’re not giving up! They’re still on the hunt for life on other planets and finding new planets, keeping our dreams alive for more knowledge in the future.

One exciting possibility is a planet that’s about 6.34 times as massive as Jupiter. If they confirm its existence, it would be a groundbreaking discovery: the first known planet in a different galaxy.

The Twin Quasar Event in History!

A similar occurrence took place in 1996 when a group of astronomers detected an unusual fluctuation in the light curve of the Twin Quasar. This fluctuation appeared to be caused by a planet roughly three times the mass of Earth within the lensing galaxy YGKOW G1. However, the validity of these findings remains uncertain because the fortuitous alignment that led to its identification is unlikely to occur again.
If they confirm PA-99-N2 exoplanet, it would set a mind-blowing record as the farthest known planet which is 4 billion light-years away.

Is PA-99-N2 a planet?

Its discovery was initiated by a microlensing event in 1999, yet astronomers are currently in the process of verifying its existence. Locating planets in the expansive realm of space poses a significant challenge.

How big is PA-99-N2 compared to Earth?

Researchers have stated the mass of the PA-99-N2 to be about 6.34 Jupiter masses. That amounts as 2015.5 to the Earth masses.

Does PA-99-N2 have moons?

In Andromeda, there’s a planet called PA-99-N2 D, orbiting another planet called PA-99-N2, but it’s farther from the center. This planet is either a blue gas giant or an ice giant and has a set of rings that don’t line up and two moons.

What star does PA-99-N2 orbit?

PA-99-N2 b is a planet in another galaxy, Andromeda, that orbits the red giant star PA-99-N2.

Where is PA-99-N2?

PA-99-N2 is a red giant star in the Andromeda Galaxy, located incredibly far away from Earth at about 2,185,247 light-years (or 670,000 parsecs).

Is PA-99-N2 bigger than Jupiter?

In 1999, a microlensing event called PA-99-N2 occurred. It is providing an opportunity to find the first exoplanet. The one having a mass 6.34 times that of Jupiter outside our Milky Way galaxy.

How did Andromeda Galaxy get its name?

The most remarkable aspect of our night sky is the grand Andromeda Galaxy. It is one of the closest galaxies to Earth. And one of the rare galaxies that can be seen without telescopic assistance. Besides this, Andromeda gets its name from the princess of Ethiopia, whom the hero Perseus saved from being sacrificed to the sea monster Cetus, according to Greek mythology.

Some Crisp Facts About Andromeda Galaxy:

One more galaxy you should be aware of, besides our Milky Way, is the Andromeda Galaxy. It’s actually the closest galaxy to us. It’s worth noting that the universe boasts around two trillion galaxies in total. The Andromeda Galaxy is about 2.5 million light-years away from us. Astronomers are really curious about the Andromeda Galaxy because it’s our close space neighbor. Let’s dive into what we know about planets in Andromeda. Similar to our Milky Way Galaxy having the Solar System, the Andromeda Galaxy also harbors many intriguing celestial wonders.

In 2013, scientists found a large gas planet similar to Jupiter. It is exoplanet ROXs 42Bb which is located about 500 light-years away. It orbits a cooler, dimmer M-type star which is 1.34 times wider than our Sun.

  • Radius, Weight & Diameter:

This gas giant, named ROXs 42Bb has a radius 1.12 times that of Jupiter and weighs as much as 9 Jupiter’s. Despite being only 12% larger than Jupiter, it’s nine times as massive.

  • The Intriguing Discovery of ROXs 42Bb:

Researchers used a technique called Direct Imaging to spot ROXs 42 Bb. This involves capturing actual images of the planet while blocking out its bright star’s light. Direct Imaging is relatively new but gaining popularity in the search for exoplanets.

  • Formation & Scientific Theories:

The exact way this planet formed is not clear. There are theories about it gathering gas, dust, and other materials from the star’s core (accretion), gravitational instability in the system, or a formation process resembling binary stars, which didn’t fully happen.

  • Temperature Insights:

Initial models suggest ROXs 42 Bb has a high effective temperature, around 3,000 degrees Fahrenheit (or 1730 degrees Celsius), in contrast to Earth’s much lower temperature of 2.2 degrees Fahrenheit (-19 degrees Celsius).

Atmospheric Details of ROXs 42Bb:

ROXs 42 Bb probably has a cloudy and dusty atmosphere, but we need more research to be sure. It’s tricky to tell the difference between a giant planet and a brown dwarf. Brown dwarfs are like failed stars because they didn’t gather enough mass for nuclear fusion in their cores. Currently, we classify brown dwarfs as having about 13 times the mass of Jupiter. ROXs 42 Bb still fits the definition of a gas giant based on our current information.

Around ROXs 42 Bb, there might be five possible brown dwarf exoplanets, but we’re still confirming this based on different data.

ROXs 42Bb
The Keck Telescope took this direct image of the ROXs-42 system, showing the gas giant ROXs-42Bb to the right of the star.

ROXs 42Bb vs Earth:

ROXs-42Bb’s orbit around its star is very different from Earth’s orbit around the Sun. It’s 157 times farther away, indicating an unconventional formation.

Let’s Learn Some Quick & Interesting Facts:

  • ROXs 42b is in our Milky Way galaxy. It’s not part of our Solar System, which has only one star, the Sun.
  • ROXs 42b has its own set of planets.
  • We haven’t found any planets around this star yet, but if we do, they’d likely be listed in the Exoplanet EU database.
  • No humans or probes have been to ROXs 42b, and there are no plans for visits.
  • ROXs 42b is a bit smaller than the Sun.
  • It’s roughly 470.19 light-years away from Earth. When we look at a star, we’re seeing it as it was many years ago. So, the number of light-years is also the number of years in the past we’re observing it.

What is ROXs 42Bb’s diameter?

ROXs 42Bb is a huge planet known as a Black Gold Super Jupiter, and it circles around ROXs 42B. This planet is sizable, about 2.5 times the size of Jupiter, which is roughly 5 times Jupiter’s diameter, or about 350,000 kilometers wide.

Is ROXs 42Bb the biggest planet?

The biggest planet known in the universe is likely ROXs 42 Bb, a huge exoplanet discovered in 2013. It’s a massive gas giant, situated about 500 light-years from Earth. NASA estimates that its radius is approximately 1.12 times that of Jupiter’s.

Is ROXs 42Bb a failed star?

ROXs 42Bb is the largest known exoplanet. We spotted it in 2013 using direct imaging. Originally thought to be a failed star, it’s now classified as a gas giant and is nine times heavier than Jupiter. It takes nearly 2,000 years to complete one orbit around its star.

What is ROXs 42Bb made of?

ROXs 42 Bb is a gas giant, much larger than Earth, and like Jupiter and Saturn, it’s mainly made up of hydrogen and helium.

Where is ROXs 42Bb?

ROXs 42Bb is near the young star ROXs 42B, located about 440 light-years away. Both are part of the ρ Ophiuchus star-forming region in the Ophiuchus constellation.

How is ROXs 42B compared to the Sun?

ROXs 42B is a binary star system with two smaller, cooler stars compared to the Sun. They’re quite young, around seven million years old, and are located about 390 light years from Earth. The planet, ROXs 42Bb, is about 11 times the mass of Jupiter and orbits its stars at a distance of roughly 22 billion kilometers (14 billion miles).

Who discovered ROXs 42Bb?

Astronomer Thayne Currie found ROXs 42Bb. It’s a planet-like object that orbits the binary M star ROXs 42B and is probably connected to the Rho Ophiuchi cloud complex. Thayne Currie, from the University of Toronto, announced this discovery on October 17, 2013.

What is the color of ROXs 42Bb?

ROXS 42B is a Red Dwarf Star in the Ophiuchus Molecular Cloud.

ROXs 42Bb Compared to Jupiter:

Planet size is relative and depends on how you measure it. In space, there are many planets larger than Jupiter, both detected and potentially yet to be found.

For example, there are some “puffy” planets that are twice as wide as Jupiter but not as heavy. However, currently, the largest known planet is ROXs 42 Bb, which is only slightly wider than Jupiter but nine times more massive.

The exciting thing about space exploration is that we may discover even larger planets in the future. Right now, ROXs 42 Bb holds the record as the biggest known planet in the universe.

The exoplanet, TOI-3757 b is a gas giant planet that revolves around a K-type star. The mass of this exoplanet is about 0.27 times more than that of Jupiter and therefore it completes one circle around its star in just 3.4 days. If we talk about its distance, then it is located at approximately 0.038 AU from its K-type star, approx. Furthermore, if we talk about its discovery, then it was in 2022. 

This planet is unique because it has an incredibly low density, similar to that of a marshmallow. Even though red dwarf stars are cooler than stars like our Sun, they can still be very active and produce strong flares that could potentially strip away a planet’s atmosphere.

Planetary scientists suggested two ideas for the planet’s marshmallow-like atmosphere:

Gas giants like Jupiter initially form from rocky cores that are several times more massive than Earth. As the solar system takes shape, these central cores attract surrounding gas. However, in the case of TOI-3757 b, which orbits a red dwarf star with fewer heavy elements than other similar stars, the rocky core formation may have been slower. This delayed the process of accumulating the surrounding gas.

As a result, TOI-3757 b ended up with a less dense and fluffier atmosphere compared to other gas giants like Jupiter that orbit stars with more heavy elements. TOI-3757’s orbit around its red dwarf star could be elliptical.

NOIRLab explains:

“There are times it gets closer to its star than at other times, resulting in substantial excess heating that can cause the planet’s atmosphere to bloat”

The Reason Behind the Low Density of TOI-3757 b:

The exoplanet, TOI-3757 b, is very interesting to astronomers because it possesses unique and distinct characteristics. This makes it one of the relatively few gas giants (around 10 in total) found orbiting M dwarf stars.

What’s particularly intriguing about TOI-3757 b is its low density, which is approximately 0.27 grams per cubic centimeter (g/cm³). The low density provides a valuable chance to study planet formation theories.

Two hypotheses are put forth to explain this low density:

  • Low Metallicity: The star hosting TOI-3757 b has a lower metallicity (around 0.3 dex lower) compared to the average metallicity of M dwarf stars that host gas giants. This lower metallicity might have contributed to the delayed formation of a solid core massive enough to trigger the rapid accumulation of gas.
  • Tidal Heating: It’s also possible that the eccentricity of TOI-3757 b’s orbit (solid estimation at 0.14 +/- 0.06) leads towards tidal heating, which could have expanded the planet’s radius. This, in turn, would result in the lower density observed.

Because of its low density and large scale height, TOI-3757 b is an excellent planet for studying its atmosphere using transmission spectroscopy. This research can reveal details about the atmosphere’s composition and how gases escape, with an estimated measurement of around 190 for transmission spectroscopy.

The Rocky Core & Elliptical Shape of TOI-3757b:

The unusually low density of TOI-3757b can be attributed to two key factors, as explained by astronomers.

Firstly, it’s related to the planet’s rocky core. Gas giants typically start as massive rocky cores, roughly ten times the mass of Earth. Cores quickly gather lots of nearby gas, becoming the gas giants we see now. However, TOI-3757’s host star has a lower concentration of heavy elements compared to other M-dwarf stars with gas giants. This difference may have caused the rocky core of TOI-3757b to form more slowly, delaying the initiation of gas accumulation, and consequently, influencing the planet’s overall density.

Secondly, the planet’s orbit is believed to be somewhat elliptical. At certain points in its orbit, it comes closer to its star than at other times. This proximity results in significant additional heating, causing the planet’s atmosphere to expand or bloat. This expansion contributes to the planet’s lower density.

What is TOI-3757 b?

TOI-3757 b is an exoplanet classified as a gas giant, and it orbits a K-type star. It has a mass approximately equal to 0.26838 times that of Jupiter. This exoplanet orbits its star in just 3.4 days and is very close, about 0.03845 AU away from it.

When was toi-3757 b discovered?

Discovered in 2022, TOI-3757 b is a gas giant orbiting a red dwarf star in the constellation Auriga, located about 580 light-years from Earth. It’s exceptionally low-density, akin to a marshmallow.

Is there a marshmallow planet?

TOI-3757 b, the lowest-density planet ever detected, has a density akin to a marshmallow. The measurement of this exoplanet is just 0.27 grams per cubic centimeter, which is less than half the density of Saturn.

Who discovered TOI-3757 b?

The discovery of TOI-3757b was possible through NASA’s Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS). It was subsequently confirmed using the Habitable-zone Planet Finder (HPF).

What is the diameter of TOI-3757 b?

TESS observed TOI-3757 b as it passed in front of its host star. It is enabling astronomers to determine that the planet’s diameter is approximately 150,000 kilometers (100,000 miles). Which makes it slightly larger than Jupiter.

Is the cotton candy planet real?

“Super-Puffs” might sound like the name of a breakfast cereal. But it’s a term which describes a special and uncommon category of young exoplanets. These planets are as light as cotton candy, and there’s nothing similar to them in our solar system.

Is there a pink planet?

GJ 504b is a fascinating magenta-colored exoplanet. This pinkish planet comprises of gases and looks somewhat like Jupiter, a huge gas giant in our solar system. However, GJ 504b is notably larger, with a mass approximately four times greater than that of Jupiter.

Significant Statements by Authors & Researchers:

TOI-3757b was discovered using NASA’s Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS). It is confirmed with the Habitable-zone Planet Finder (HPF) on the Hobby-Eberly Telescope and the NEID instrument on the WIYN 3.5-m telescope.

Jessica Libby-Roberts is an author of the new research on TOI-3757 b and a postdoctoral researcher at Pennsylvania State University, She says in a statement.

“Potential future observations of the atmosphere of this planet using NASA’s new James Webb Space Telescope could help shed light on its puffy nature,”

Dr. Jessica Libby-Roberts, a postdoctoral researcher at Pennsylvania State University, says:

“Potential future observations of the atmosphere of this planet using the NASA/ESA/CSA James Webb Space Telescope could help shed light on its puffy nature.”

Dr. Kanodia says:

“Finding more such systems with giant planets — which were once theorized to be extremely rare around red dwarfs — is part of our goal to understand how planets form.”

In 2011, the Kepler mission spotted an Exoplanet koi-3010.01 using the transit method. Scientists are really interested in this planet because it shares Earth-like qualities. So, without any delay let’s explore some of the common elements that this exoplanet and our Earth shares!

‘Lyra’ Constellation of Exoplanet koi-3010.01:

The red dwarf KOI-3010 is 1,213 light-years away in the Lyra constellation. It’s a really old star, about 13.9 billion years old. The planet KOI-3010.01, or Exoplanet koi-3010.01 is a warm super-Earth-like planet. But it may be your surprise that it is heavier than our planet but not as big as gas giants. Moreover, it takes around 60 Earth days to revolve around its star.

Exoplanet Koi-3010.01

Comparative Dimensions of Exoplanet Koi-3010.01 and the Earth

The planet KOI-3010.01 exudes the conditions that are suitable for the existence and growth of life. Its average temperature stands at 19.6°C, and it boasts a radius 1.35 times larger than Earth’s. If you want to know about the information about its atmosphere, then it is limited. There’s an assumption that it closely resembles Earth’s atmosphere. The planet’s mass index is not clear. However, researchers are optimistic that Exoplanet koi-3010.01 offers more than just a temperate Earth-like climate. Therefore, they are really interested in discovering a vast liquid ocean covering approximately 65% of its surface.

Exoplanets KOI-3010.01 and the Earth

The exoplanet has many similar compositions to our planet and which is why it is in the habitable zone. Its similarity index to Earth is 0.84. Therefore, it is making scientists strongly believe it could support life. The  has an average surface temperature of 4092 K, which is nearly 29% cooler than our Sun. This explains why the conditions on the exoplanet, despite its proximity, are quite comfortable.

It is clear that life on this exoplanet depends on its atmosphere. It’s about 19.6 degrees Celsius on average and bigger than Earth. But, scientists are yet to know about the mass of this planet. Also, they don’t know much about its air, but it might be like Earth’s. We don’t know its mass yet. Researchers are predicting that this planet have a pleasant atmosphere like Earth and a big ocean covering most of its surface. Which could be great for life.

The KOI-3010.01 provides conditions for the origin and sustainability of life that are approximately 6% more favorable than Earth’s. Considering that KOI-3010.01 is nearly twice as old as Earth, there is a very similarity that life could have emerged and evolved on this exoplanet.

The Support to Organic Life Exoplanet koi-3010.01 : Liquid Water & Much More!

The similarities between this exoplanet and Earth make it a strong consideration for supporting organic life. Having liquid water is important for life as we know it, and a size and orbit similar to Earth’s, it could possibly have a rocky surface.

Now, let’s move on talking about atmosphere which is also an interesting part. Using advanced computer models, scientists have simulated what KOI-3010.01’s atmosphere might be like. The results suggest it could have a thick, oxygen-rich atmosphere, another key factor for life’s development and sustainability.

However, these simulations are just educated guesses. To get the real scoop on KOI-3010.01, we need to conduct more observations and analysis. Scientists are still in surprise that how this exoplanet is supporting the life.

We need more research to order to confirm the life signs on KOI-3010.01.  Still, this exoplanet gives us a lot of important clues about the chance of life on it.

What is a koi exoplanet?

KOI 172.02, considered a “super-Earth,” is in the habitable zone of a sun-like star. This means the planet might have water, which is important for life, but it’s not confirmed yet.

Is Exoplanet koi-3010.01 habitable?

Incredible news in the world of astronomy! The exoplanet KOI-3010.01 is now classified as potentially habitable with an astonishing 84% probability, marking a historic milestone.

Is KOI-4878.01 a real planet?

KOI-4878.01 is a candidate exoplanet circling the F-type main-sequence star, KOI-4878, situated approximately 1075 light years (or 329 parsecs) away from Earth. This planet is a lot like Earth, and if we confirm it, it could be one of the most Earth-like planets we’ve ever found.

Is Koi-55 b a real planet?

KOI-55 b is an exoplanet that resembles Earth in terms of its terrestrial nature, and it orbits a B-type star. This planet is 0.44 times Earth’s mass and orbits its star in just 0.2 days. It’s incredibly close to its star, situated at a distance of about 0.006 Astronomical Units (AU). Scientists announced its discovery in 2011.

Bottom Line!

Scientists think this planet has similar chemicals to Earth. Moreover,  it resides within the habitable zone and has a similarity index to Earth of 0.84 (with 1 being the maximum). This leads researchers to consider it highly likely to support life.

Does Andromeda galaxy planets occur? If so, are they habitate too? Let’s answer your queries in this blog post!

As galaxies fill the universe, there is a belief system that the observable universe holds around two trillion of them. Among these galaxies, the closest one to us is the Andromeda galaxy, located approximately 2.5 million light-years away.

Given its proximity, astronomers are constantly seeking answers to our curiosity about Andromeda. They wonder whether it harbors any planets, and what these planets might look like. And most importantly, whether they could be habitable.

Facts about the Andromeda Galaxy:

  • The Andromeda Galaxy gets its name from the constellation Andromeda, a name after the mythological Greek princess Andromeda.
  • It is believed to be the most massive galaxy in the Local Group, contrary to previous assumptions that the Milky Way held this title due to its dark matter content.
  • A 2006 study revealed that the mass of Andromeda Galaxy planets mass is approximately 80% of the Milky Way’s mass.
  • Andromeda houses around 1 trillion stars, whereas the Milky Way contains about 200-400 billion stars.
  • In about 3.75 billion years, the Andromeda and Milky Way galaxies will collide and merge, forming a giant elliptical galaxy.
  • Astronomers theorize that the Andromeda Galaxy was formed 5 to 9 billion years ago when two smaller galaxies collided and merged.
  • With an apparent magnitude of 3.4, the Andromeda Galaxy is bright enough to be visible to the naked eye on moonless nights.
  • The Andromeda Galaxy is approaching the Milky Way at a speed of approximately 110 kilometers per second (68 mi/s).
  • Furthermore, a microlensing event called PA-99-N2 suggests the possibility of an extragalactic planet, estimation to be 6.34 times as massive as Jupiter. If confirmed, it would be the first exoplanet known to exist beyond the Milky Way.

A Quick Look at the Numbers:

  • Designation/s: Messier 31 (M31), NGC 224
  • Type: Spiral Galaxy
  • Constellation: Andromeda
  • Apparent Magnitude: 3.44
  • Size: 220,000 light-years across
  • Mass: 1,230 billion M☉ (solar masses)
  • Number of Stars: Approximately 1 trillion
  • Distance: 2.5 million light-years

What challenges astronomers are facing in locating the planets?

Currently, there is one very strong candidate planet in the Andromeda Galaxy, temporarily name PA-99-N2, which was detected during a microlensing event in 1999. Astronomers are diligently working to confirm its existence, and if successful, it would become the first officially recognized extragalactic planet ever discovered.

Andromeda Galaxy
Andromeda Galaxy – Credit: David Dayag

While the Andromeda Galaxy likely hosts millions or even billions of planets orbiting its numerous stars, none of them have been fully confirmed as of yet.

Detecting planets beyond our Solar System poses significant challenges because planets do not emit light. All confirmed exoplanets (planets outside the Solar System) are presently found within our galaxy. As our optical technology and data processing techniques continue to improve, we hope to extend our search for planets farther into the universe.

In 2010, several scientific publications reported the discovery of a Jupiter-like planet in the Andromeda Galaxy, known as HIP 13044 b. However, further analysis of the data raised multiple concerns, leading to the rejection of this planet candidate.

What is the likelihood of habitable planets in the Andromeda Galaxy?

As of now, we lack sufficient data about the stars and planets in the Andromeda Galaxy to determine with certainty whether any of its planets can support life. The best chance for a planet to be habitable is for it to be located within the “Goldilocks zone” or habitable zone of its star system.

The Goldilocks zone is the region around a star where a planet’s distance is just right to maintain liquid water on its surface.

Given the vast distance between Earth and the Andromeda galaxy, our knowledge about its stars and planets is not vast. Consequently, we cannot accurately ascertain the number of planets within the habitable zones.

Statistically, however, it is reasonable to infer that some planets in the galaxy might reside in the Goldilocks area of their respective stars. As our imaging techniques and telescopes advance in the future, we hope to confirm or refute these theories, gaining a better understanding of the potential for life within the Andromeda Galaxy.

What are the technological advancements made in Andromeda planets for further discoveries?

As of now, we do not have direct evidence to determine whether there are habitable planets in the Andromeda Galaxy. Due to the immense size of the galaxy and the distance from Earth, it is challenging to study its planets in detail using current technology.

The Andromeda Galaxy contains over a trillion stars, and many of these stars likely have sun-like characteristics, making it reasonable to assume that some of them might have planets. However, without detailed observations, we cannot confirm the presence of habitable planets in the galaxy.

As our technology advances, particularly with the potential development of NASA’s liquid lens telescopes, we hope to gain more detailed insights into the objects within the Andromeda Galaxy. With improved capabilities, we may discover more planets and solar systems in Andromeda in the future.

Regarding the Andromeda constellation, its genitive form, used for naming stars, is Andromeda. The constellation Andromeda from Greek mythology comes after the figure Andromeda. Cassiopeia’s daughter, Andromeda, was chain to a rock for sacrifice to the sea monster Cetus. Additionally, the constellation occupies a position north of the celestial equator.

Andromeda-Milky Way Collision – One of the Closest Galaxy to the Milky Way

The collision between the Andromeda Galaxy and the Milky Way is predict to occur in approximately 4 billion years. This galactic collision will be a momentous event involving the two largest galaxies in the Local Group.

Andromeda, also known as the Andromeda Galaxy, is the closest galaxy to the Milky Way. Therefore, its name originates from the constellation Andromeda, the area of the sky where it appears. Scientists consider Andromeda to be the closest large galaxy to our Milky Way.

Is there any possible planet in andromeda for habitant perspective?

As for the possible planet in the Andromeda galaxy, PA-99-N2, this detection through a microlensing event. Moreover, this event is an astronomical phenomenon, and the reason for this is the gravitational lens effect. Which helps in detecting objects of varying masses, from planets to stars, regardless of the light they emit. Additionally, the exoplanet have a mass approximately 6.34 times that of Jupiter.

While no confirmed data currently exists regarding the existence of planets in the Andromeda galaxy. Statistical inferences suggest the possibility of planets existing within the habitable zones of their stars. Where liquid water could potentially support life.

Scientists have made an extraordinary observation by uncovering a giant exoplanet’s captivating spiral arms within its host star’s gaseous and dusty confines.
Does it sound intriguing? Yes, it is! Our galaxy unfolds many crisp theories every day that paved the way for scientific theories and inventions.

An Enigmatic Giant Planet MWC 758c Sculpting the Reddest Exoplanet Forming Spiral Arms

The planet is also the reddest planet discovered beyond the solar system, or ‘exoplanet,’ according to experts.

Spiral arms are formations commonly associated with galaxies, with photographs of our spiral galaxy, the Milky Way, serving as a spectacular example. Spiral arms aren’t just seen in galaxies; gas and dust near newborn stars may also produce them.

Spiral Arms of a Star
This still from a simulation shows how the giant exoplanet MWC 758c is carving spiral arms of its parent star. (Image credit: L. Krapp and K. Kratter, University of Arizona)

MWC 758, situated roughly 500 light-years from Earth, is considered just a few million years old, making it a baby compared to our middle-aged’ sun, which is approximately 4.6 billion years old.

And, like the sun, MWC 758 is encircled by a disk of planet-forming material known as a protoplanetary disk. However, astronomers have been aware of a spiral pattern generating two arms in this protoplanetary disk since at least 2013. According to University of Arizona experts, the twin spiral arms are the product of a gigantic planet called MWC 758c, which circles the star at a distance equal to 100 times the distance between Earth and the sun.

Suppose you are wondering now how a giant planet could be a cosmic cluster forming spiral arms of its host star. Then the following part will uncover some significant information.

How Giant Planets Shapes Spiral Arms? A Deep & Scientific Analysis Revealed so much!

A Research lead author and the University of Arizona Steward Observatory postdoc Kevin Wagner, said:

“Our study puts forward a solid piece of evidence that giant planets cause these spiral arms,”

“And with the new James Webb Space Telescope, we will be able to further test and support this idea by searching for more planets like MWC 758c.”

MWC 758 planetary system
The MWC 758 planetary system as observed by the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer at infrared wavelengths. Its spiral arms are clearly apparent, as its the giant exoplanet sculpting them. (Image credit: L. Krapp and K. Kratter, University of Arizona)

Protoplanetary disks like this one and the one that previously produced the solar system typically disintegrate after 10 million years. The constituent matter within the system has three potential fates: expulsion from the system, absorption by the budding star, or incorporation into the formation of celestial bodies such as planets, moons, asteroids, and comets.

Wagner said:

“I think of this system as an analogy for how our solar system would have appeared less than 1% into its lifetime,”

“Jupiter, being a giant planet, also likely interacted with and gravitationally sculpted our disk billions of years ago, which eventually led to the formation of Earth.”

Here we are discovering what potential reason could be back that forms cosmic sculptures.

Why Cosmic Sculptors Form Giant Planets and Spiral Arms?

Spiral arms are pretty prevalent in protoplanetary disks. According to scientists, around ten of the 30 disks seen in relatively close young star systems have their spiral arms.

Wagner said:

“Spiral arms can provide feedback on the planet formation process itself. Our observation of this new planet further supports the idea that giant planets form early on, accreting mass from their birth environment, and then gravitationally alter the subsequent environment for other, smaller planets to form.”

According to one popular explanation, these spiral arms are formed when a large gas giant tugs on material whirling around its parent star. Until recently, astronomers have been unable to identify the planets that may function as cosmic sculptors for these arms.

“It was an open question as to why we hadn’t seen any of these planets yet,” Wagner said. “Most models of planet formation suggest that giant planets should be very bright shortly after their formation, and such planets should have already been detected.”

And to your surprise, the spiral arms of the host star have been keenly observed and discovered by LBTI. Here is how this university formed this particular information!

University of Arizona’s LBTI Uncovers MWC 758c in Mid-Infrared Spectrum

Using the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer (LBTI), the University of Arizona discovered the spiral arms dealer at MWC 758. While most exoplanet-hunting telescopes explore for planets beyond the solar system using short wavelengths at the blue end of the electromagnetic spectrum, this University of Arizona-built equipment can scan the sky at longer wavelengths in the mid-infrared area.

This suggests that, while MWC 758c managed to elude other telescopes with its odd and surprising red-hue, it couldn’t fool the LBTI.

Because of the thermal glow of the Earth’s atmosphere and the telescope itself, longer, redder wavelengths are more challenging to detect than shorter, bluer wavelengths, according to LBTI chief instrument scientist Steve Ertel.

When discovering planets hiding around their stars, the LBTI, one of the most sensitive infrared telescopes ever built, can even exceed the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), which likewise scans the cosmos in infrared. The team also has theories on how the planet remained undiscovered for so long.

Thus, two models were explored that could be why this planet is brighter and has long wavelengths.

What Two Models Are Explored for Mysterious Planet MWC 758c that Formed Spiral Arms?

Ertel said:

“We propose two different models for why this planet is brighter at longer wavelengths. Either this is a planet with a colder temperature than expected, or it is a planet that’s still hot from its formation, and it happens to be enshrouded by dust.”

If MWC 758c is blanketed in dust, the dust will absorb short-wavelength light, causing the planet to seem brilliant only at longer red wavelengths.

If the exoplanet is surrounded by dust, it might mean it is still growing or accumulating its moons, just like the solar system’s gas giant Jupiter did billions of years ago.

“In the other scenario of a colder planet surrounded by less dust, the planet is fainter and emits more of its light at longer wavelengths,” research co-author and University of Arizona theoretical astrophysicist Kaitlin Kratter said.

Now, you must be wondering how this discovery could further help in scientific studies. If yes, then here you go!

What are the Implications for Planet Formation Theories and Exoplanet Hunting Strategies?

If this chillier model for MWC 758c is correct, it suggests that something is happening in developing planetary systems like this that cause planets to form colder than predicted. This might have an influence on planet formation theories as well as the approaches now used by astronomers to find exoplanets.

“In either case, we now know that we need to start looking for redder protoplanets in these systems with spiral arms,” Wagner said.

The researchers that discovered MWC 758c will now use the JWST to observe the exoplanet in 2024 to discern between various scenarios at work in this young planetary system.

“Depending on the results that come from the JWST observations, we can begin to apply this newfound knowledge to other stellar systems,” Wagner said, “and that will allow us to make predictions about where other hidden planets might be lurking and will give us an idea as to what properties we should be looking for to detect them.”

From our cosmic backyard in the solar system to faraway galaxies near the beginning of time, NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope has done what it said it would in its first year of science operations to show us the universe as we’ve never seen it before. NASA shared a picture of small Sun-like stars forming an area in the Rho Ophiuchi cloud complex taken by Webb to mark the end of a successful first year.

Sun-like stars
The first-anniversary image from NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope displays star birth like it’s never been seen before, full of detailed, impressionistic texture. The subject is the Rho Ophiuchi cloud complex, the closest star-forming region to Earth. It is a relatively small, quiet stellar nursery, but you’d never know it from Webb’s chaotic close-up. Jets bursting from young stars crisscross the image, impacting the surrounding interstellar gas and lighting up molecular hydrogen, shown in red. Some stars display the telltale shadow of a circumstellar disk, the makings of future planetary systems. Credits: NASA, ESA, CSA, STScI, Klaus Pontoppidan (STScI)

What were the perspectives on Webb after the Sun-like stars’ discovery?

Scientists had a realization of how Webb has altered the way humans perceive the solar system. Bill Nelson, who is in charge of NASA, said;

“In just one year, the James Webb Space Telescope has changed how people see the universe. For the first time, they can look into dust clouds and see light from faraway parts of the universe. Every new image, such as Sun-like stars, is a discovery that lets scientists worldwide ask and answer questions they could never have thought of before.” 

First of all, let’s have a look at Webb before discussing Sun-like stars. Webb is an investment in American innovation and a science achievement made possible by NASA’s foreign partners who share a can-do attitude and want to push the limits of what is possible. Thousands of engineers, scientists, and leaders have dedicated their lives to this goal, and their work will continue to help us learn more about the world and where we fit in it.

Webb is one of the most appreciated tools for space scientists

On the first anniversary of its launch, Nicola Fox, associate administrator of NASA’s Science Mission Directorate in Washington, said,

“The James Webb Space Telescope has already lived up to its promise to reveal the universe. It has given us a breathtaking treasure trove of images and science that will last for decades.” 

“Webb is an engineering marvel built by the best scientists and engineers in the world. It has given us a deeper understanding of galaxies, stars, and the atmospheres of planets outside of our solar system, setting the stage for NASA to lead the world into a new era of scientific discovery and the search for habitable worlds.”

Klaus Pontoppidan was the Webb project scientist at the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, Maryland, from before the telescope’s launch until the end of its first year of operation. once said;

“Webb’s picture of Rho Ophiuchi gives us a clearer look at a very short time in the life of a star. Our own Sun went through something similar a long time ago. Now we have the technology to see the beginning of another star’s story,” 

Sun-like stars
NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope has produced the deepest and sharpest infrared image of the distant universe to date. Known as Webb’s First Deep Field, this image of galaxy cluster SMACS 0723 is overflowing with detail. Thousands of galaxies – including the faintest objects ever observed in the infrared – have appeared in Webb’s view for the first time. Credits: NASA, ESA, CSA, and STScI

How was the image of Sun-like stars the Webb captures?

Webb’s picture of Sun-like stars shows an area with about 50 young stars, all about the same size as the Sun or smaller. Where there is a lot of dust, where protostars are still forming, it is darkest and densest. Huge bipolar jets of molecular hydrogen, shown in red, dominate the image. They stretch across the top third of the picture horizontally and vertically on the right.

When a star first breaks through its birth covering of cosmic dust, it sends a pair of opposite jets into space, just like a baby does when she stretches her arms out for the first time. In the lower part of the picture, the star S1 has made a bright cave out of dust. Among all other Sun-like stars, it’s the only star in the notion much bigger than the Sun.

The new Webb picture today shows the Sun-like star-forming area closest to us. It is only 390 light-years away, so we can closely see it because no stars are in the way. Some of the stars in the picture have shadows that point to protoplanetary disks, which are possible planetary systems in the making. In this picture from the Webb telescope, the galaxies look like bright, shining spots; some are blurry because of gravitational lensing. The shape of Webb’s mirrors makes the stars in the center look hopeful with six-pointed diffraction spikes.

The popularity of Webb captured images of Sun-like stars

Webb has kept its promise to show us more of the universe than ever before. Its first deep field picture was shown live at the White House by President Joe Biden, Vice President Kamala Harris, and Nelson. But Webb showed us much more about the early universe than faraway galaxies; Sun-like stars by Webb are an example.

Eric Smith, associate director for research in the Astrophysics Division at NASA Headquarters and Webb program scientist, said;

“Now that we have a year’s worth of data from targets all over the sky, it’s clear how many kinds of science Webb can look into. Webb’s first year of science has taught us new things about our universe and shown that the telescope can do more than we thought it could. This means that future discoveries like Sun-like stars will be even more amazing.”

The science community worldwide has spent the last year looking over Webb’s first public data and figuring out how to use it.

How can Webb be useful for space study?

Scientists are most excited about Webb’s precise spectra, the specific information that can be taken from light by the telescope’s spectroscopic equipment. Webb’s scopes have proven the distances of some of the farthest galaxies ever seen and found the oldest and most distant supermassive black holes. It has discovered more about the atmospheres of planets (or the lack of atmospheres) than ever before.

They have also cut down what kinds of atmospheres may exist on rocky exoplanets for the first time. And they have also found the chemical makeup of Sun like stars nurseries and protoplanetary disks by finding water, biological molecules with carbon in them, and other things. Webb’s observations have led to hundreds of science studies that answer questions that have been around for a long time and raise new questions for Webb to answer.

What is Webbs’s significance regarding life on the planet Earth?

Webb’s views of our solar system, including Sun-like stars, the part of space we know best, also show its broad science. Webb shows faint rings of gas giants with moons out of the darkness. In the background, Webb shows galaxies that are very far away. By comparing the water and other chemicals in our solar system to those in the disks of other, much younger planetary systems, Webb is helping to figure out how Earth became the perfect place for life as we know it.

NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center’s Webb Senior Project Scientist Jane Rigby said,

“After a year of science, we know exactly how powerful this telescope is, and we’ve delivered spectacular data and discoveries.” 

“For year two, we’ve chosen a set of bold observations that build on everything we’ve learned so far. Webb’s science mission is just getting started. There is so much more to come.”