NASA is now letting Astro-enthusiasts check about a comic wonder of “What did Hubble see on your birthday?”

Hubble Telescope is basically a telescope that glares at the stars. They do it with their wide lens wide open 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Each day of the year would surely look at something specific each day.


NASA is providing a feature to find your birthday:

A message on the webpage where internet users can check this out.

“What did Hubble see on your birthday? Enter the month and date below to find out.”

What did Hubble see on your birthday?

NASA says:

“Then share the results with your friends on social media using #Hubble30.”

Besides this, Netizens shared images using the hashtag, sharing magnificent images taken by NASA Hubble Birthday.

What is NASA Hubble Telescope? Let’s have a keen insights!

Since it took off in 1990, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) has shown us lots of amazing pictures.  You can also check NASA images by date. These pictures are not just nice to look at, they make people excited about space.

But Hubble does more than take pretty pictures. Over the years, it has collected a ton of data, like a huge amount of computer files. Besides this, the data has helped us learn a lot about space. Hubble looks at things that are close, like the Moon, and things that are really far away. For instances, like galaxies that are super, super distant. It looks at different things, like exploding stars and cloudy areas in space called nebulas. All of these well curated data paves the way to answer your query of What did Hubble see on your birthday!

Let’s talk about the history of the telescope and what it has found out. We’ll also tell you interesting things about NASA Hubble archive pictures too.

A Brief Details About Hubble Telescope:

Back in 1610, a scientist named Galileo Galilei used a spyglass to look at the sky. He had a hard time seeing the rings around Saturn, which we can easily see with telescopes today. As time went on, scientists improved telescopes to see planets, stars, and faraway galaxies better. But the air around Earth still caused problems, making the views blurry. So, scientists put telescopes on high mountains where the air is thinner, making the views clearer.

After World War II in 1946, an astronomer named Lyman Spitzer had an idea. He wanted to put a telescope in space, away from Earth’s problems, to get even better views. But it took a while for people to agree with his idea. Finally, in the 1960s, a group of scientists wrote a paper about how useful this space telescope could be. They said it should be big and ambitious. The people who decide about space stuff, like NASA, heard about this and thought it was a great idea.

But it wasn’t until 1971 that things really got moving. A person named George Low, who was in charge of NASA at that time, said yes to the idea of a big space telescope. That was the time the idea of Hubble telescope came out. NASA then started asking for money from the government to make it happen.

How NASA answers your quest of “What did Hubble see on your birthday?”

In 2021, NASA made something special. They let people see how the universe looked on their birthdays. These pictures are on a website called the Astronomy Picture of the Day (APOD). NASA and Michigan Technical University work together to run this website.

Here’s how they do it:

  • They use the Hubble Space Telescope to take all these pictures.
  • Furthermore, this amazing telescope is named after a famous astronomer named Edwin Hubble.
  • It was sent into space by a space shuttle called Discovery in 1990.
  • Hubble can see really well, and it gives us incredible views of space.
  • It goes around the Earth very fast, like 17,000 miles per hour.

How to see what the Hubble telescope saw on your birthday?

To view what the Hubble observed on your birthdate, simply visit the NASA website. Once there, pick your birth month and day, then click “submit” to access the image and accompanying details of what Hubble captured.


What did the Hubble see in 1997?

On June 27, 1997, the Hubble telescope captured images of Mars as part of the preparations for the Pathfinder spacecraft’s landing on July 4. Furthermore, these pictures unveil a dust storm in motion within the expansive Valles Marineris canyons, situated approximately 600 miles (1,000 kilometers) to the south of the designated landing site for the Pathfinder spacecraft.

What did Hubble see in his telescope?

Helped pin down the age for the universe now known to be 13.8 billion years, roughly three times the age of Earth. Discovered two moons of Pluto, Nix and Hydra. Helped determine the rate at which the universe is expanding. Discovered that nearly every major galaxy is anchored by a black hole at the center.

What is the most famous image from Hubble?

The surrounding region is composed of visible-light observations taken by the Advanced Camera for Surveys. The NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope has revisited one of its most iconic and popular images: the Eagle Nebula’s Pillars of Creation.

Eagle Nebula
The Eagle Nebula taken on September 2014. IMAGE: NASA.

What did Hubble see on May 22 2003?

In 2003, specifically on May 22, the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope (HST) made an intriguing observation of enigmatic “jets” emanating from the planetary nebula known as Henize 3-1475. That is why, this celestial phenomenon has earned the playful moniker of the “Garden-sprinkler” Nebula among astronomers.

What is Hubble birthday?

Launched on April 24, 1990 by NASA’s Discovery shuttle, the Hubble Space Telescope was shot into space to get a glimpse of distant and exotic galaxies and stars. Which is a promise it has lived up to. So, NASA has curated many educative and fascinating data to answer, What did the sky look like on my birthday?

Why is Hubble so famous?

By 1929, Hubble had fundamentally transformed our perception of our position in the cosmos. Besides answering what did Hubble see on your birthday, it also reveals other important discoveries too. The universe was no longer just a realm containing numerous galaxies; it was also undergoing expansion.

Was there any time that the launch of Hubble Telescope got delayed?

A space shuttle called Challenger exploded just a minute after it took off on January 28, 1986. This accident killed all seven astronauts on board. After this, space shuttles didn’t fly for more than two and a half years. During this time, NASA had to plan Hubble’s launch again.

On April 24, 1990, the space shuttle Discovery successfully launched Hubble into space. The next day, it placed the telescope into a low orbit around Earth, at a distance of about 340 miles (545 kilometers) above the planet’s surface. Moreover, the process of creating Hubble and sending it into space cost $1.5 billion. However, this marked only the beginning of the financial commitments, as additional costs continued to arise in the following years.

NASA has recently captured a monster galaxy, but it is not the monster that you are imagining. It is a galaxy cluster roughly eight billion light-years from Earth.

Intriguing? Yes, it is! Let’s find out more about it.  

ESA Hubble Captures Monster Galaxy that is Merging to Form a Massive Gravitational Lens

In this view of the extraordinary galaxy cluster eMACS J1353.7+4329, which resides roughly eight billion light-years from Earth in the constellation Canes Venatici, the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope has captured a monster in the making. This collection of at least two galaxy clusters is merging to become a cosmic monster, a single massive cluster serving as a gravitational lens.

Now, we will see how Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity works here and how it relates to the monster galaxy. 

Visualization of Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity 

A striking illustration of Einstein’s general theory of relativity in action is gravitational lensing. A celestial entity, such as a monster galaxy is large enough to warp spacetime, causing the path of light around the object to be twisted visually, as if by a large lens.

Things that would typically be too weak and too far away to be discovered can be observed by astronomers thanks to gravitational lensing, which can also magnify faraway objects.

It can also distort photographs of background galaxies, turning them into light streaks. The initial signs of gravitational lensing may be seen in this image as brilliant arcs that blend in with the swarm of galaxies in eMACS J1353.7+4329.

Apart from this, here arises the question, will this visualization further help in scientific studies? The following part of the blog is solely related to it!

Monster Galaxy: Paving the Path for James Webb Space Telescope Studies

The data in this image come from the Monsters in the Making observation effort, which employed two of Hubble’s sensors to observe five unique galaxy clusters at several wavelengths. Hubble’s Wide Field Camera 3 and Advanced Camera for Surveys enabled these multi-wavelength studies.

The researchers hope their findings will open the way for future studies of monster galaxies of huge gravitational lenses using next-generation telescopes like NASA’s/ESA’s/CSA’s James Webb Space Telescope.

You have surely heard about the galaxies clusters. But how is it different from the monster galaxy? Let’s see it!

A COSMIC MONSTER! What is this all about? Let’s Find Out!

Hubble’s latest image reveals a dense congregation of oval-shaped galaxies forming a galaxy cluster, each exhibiting a radiant orange halo around a luminous core. But it is not the monster galaxy.

Scattered across the image are numerous other galaxies, accompanied by a brilliant star showing a starburst effect characterized by distinct diffraction spikes.

Guys, now you will surely think about the relationship of its finding to the early galaxies. That is why to clear your thoughts, we have curated a part. So, keep reading!

A Cosmic Cluster: Let’s Dig Deep Into It!

This colossal cosmic cluster serves as a gravitational lens, enabling scientists to delve into the intricate details of early galaxies beyond their typical reach. Gravitational lensing occurs when massive foreground objects, like the merging galaxies observed here, warp the fabric of spacetime, leading to the magnification or distortion of light from more distant objects.

ESA officials explained:

“The significant mass of a celestial body such as a galaxy cluster distorts the very fabric of spacetime, visibly bending the path of light as if through a vast lens,” 

“The initial indications of gravitational lensing are already evident in this image as luminous arcs, intermingling with the multitude of galaxies in eMACS J1353.7+4329.”

In the solar system. to observe the existence of certain stunning spiral galaxies, tools like telescopes are used.

How did Hubble revolutionize the astronomical world with stunning spiral galaxies?

The greatest important development in astronomy until Galileo’s telescope occurred with the launch and activation of Hubble in April 1990. Our understanding of cosmic phenomena and our standing therein has changed significantly over the course of over two decades of operations and 5 maintenance expeditions. The researchers said;

“Robotic telescopes allow us to detect everything from unexpected asteroids to rare, unpredictable supernovae and can identify intriguing objects that can then be investigated in more detail by powerful telescopes such as Hubble.”

How can the appearance of spiral galaxies be explained?

Featuring yellowish swells in the middle, stunning spiral galaxies look like straight blue-white discs of celestial bodies, gases, and dust. The two distinct categories of these galaxies are regular spirals and barred spirals. Within a spiral galaxy, the spinning disc is surrounded by spiral ‘arms’ that extend outward from a compact center region. A galaxy with spiral arms is the Milky Way. Galaxies can be divided into four categories: spiral, barred spiral, elliptical, and erratic.

Astrophysical research conducted by Lord Rosse led to the identification of several nebulae as stunning spiral galaxies.

Discovery of a stunning spiral, the UGC 11860

In a photograph captured by NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, the stunning spiral galaxy UGC 11860 appears suspended peacefully among a landscape of distant galaxies. The galaxy UGC 11860, which is located in the celestial Pegasus and is about 184 million light-years out of reach, deceives the eye with its peaceful demeanor by recently hosting a nearly unfathomably intense stellar outburst.

Following operating successfully for more than three decades, the space observatory from NASA and the European Space Agency continues to operate leading to important findings. Beth Biller, an astronomer at the University of Edinburgh in the UK and leader of a council that represents researchers who use Hubble, believes there continues to be a tonne of work to be performed with Hubble.

Also, 2014 saw the detection of an eruption of supernovae in stunning spiral UGC 11860, the horrifically violent conclusion of a giant star’s lifespan. Hubble’s Wide Field Camera 3 was utilized by researchers to explore the following events and examine the continuing repercussions of this massive cosmic explosion.

Hubble astronomers said.

“The untroubled appearance of UGC 11860 can be deceiving,”

“This galaxy recently played host to an almost unimaginably energetic stellar explosion.”

What was the chemical makeup of the spiral galaxy, UGC 11860?

To learn more about the star systems that ultimately perish in supernovae, one team investigated a stunning spiral galaxy, the UGC 11860. The elements that reside spanning silicon and nickel on the periodic chart were mostly created by extremely intense mechanisms during exploding supernovae. In order to figure out the number of chemical elements on Earth that came to be, it is crucial to comprehend the impact of the mass numbers and compositional makeup of the precursor star constellations.

Stunning spiral stars thus, are discovered by NASA’s Hubble, opening an entrance into the early universe. Nature is full of spirals, starting with the swirl of a cyclone to the immense expanses of spiral galaxies throughout our cosmos to the pinwheel-shaped protoplanetary discs surrounding young stars.
Additionally, Hubble has been utilized by astronomers from Arizona University and around the world to look into far-off galaxies and gain a deeper understanding of both the distant past and the distant future of our evolving cosmos.




The image of an Irregular Galaxy captured by the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope unveils the captivating galaxy NGC 7292, adorned with a handful of luminous stars and the ethereal blurs of galaxies situated in the distant backdrop.

hubble ngc7292

Irregular Galaxy Shows the Picture of Vastness of the Nature

The celestial beauty known as NGC 7292, nestled within the frame of this picture, stands as a testament to the vastness of our universe. Unlike its spiral counterparts, NGC 7292 defies convention with its unique morphology.

Its core gracefully extends, forming a distinctive bar-shaped structure that sets it apart.

Moreover, NGC 7292 exudes an intriguing dimness, earning the epithet of a low surface brightness galaxy.

Such galaxies, dominated by interstellar gas and enigmatic dark matter, often play host to stellar mysteries yet to be fully unraveled.

Hubble Captured Irregular Galaxies

Guided by their insatiable thirst for knowledge, astronomers directed the Hubble telescope toward NGC 7292.

This endeavor was part of a comprehensive observational program delving into the aftermath of Type II supernovae to unravel their intriguing diversities.

These cataclysmic events occur when massive stars, having exhausted their nuclear fuel, collapse, only to violently rebound in a brilliant explosion that tears the stellar fabric asunder.

Among the many celestial phenomena that have graced NGC 7292, one event stands out in astronomical annals—SN 1964H. Discovered by keen-eyed scientists in 1964, this supernova is a remarkable milestone in our quest to comprehend the cosmos.

By scrutinizing the surrounding stellar companions of SN 1964H, astrophysicists can glean insights into the star’s magnitude before its cataclysmic demise.

Furthermore, these meticulous observations promise to unveil other remnants of stellar companions that once shared a celestial dance with the progenitor of SN 1964H.

Why is Irregular Galaxy Called So?

Any galaxy that does not easily conform to the categories outlined in the Hubble classification scheme is called an irregular galaxy.

These galaxies lack a distinct shape or structure, and they may have originated from collisions, encounters with other galaxies, or intense internal disturbances.

What are the Main Parts of an Irregular Galaxy?

A disk is present in irregular galaxies, but spiral arms are absent.

Nonetheless, these galaxies exhibit a blend of both mature and youthful stars alongside abundant gas and dust.

How Many Stars Are in Irregular Galaxy?

A disk is present in irregular galaxies, but spiral arms are absent. Nonetheless, these galaxies exhibit a blend of both mature and youthful stars alongside abundant gas and dust.

What is the Best Known Irregular galaxy?

The Large and Small Magellanic Clouds, commonly called LMC and SMC, respectively, are among the most recognizable irregular galaxies.

These galaxies can be seen as compact luminous clouds in the Southern Hemisphere’s night sky, even without the aid of telescopes.

What are irregular galaxies filled with?

Like spiral galaxies, irregular galaxies frequently contain substantial amounts of gas, dust, and numerous vibrant young stars.

Approximately 20% of galaxies nearby are classified as irregular galaxies. On the other hand, quasars are concentrated regions situated at the galaxy’s core, emitting tremendous levels of energy.

This NASA/ESA photograph of the Hubble Space Telescope shows the serenely drifting jellyfish galaxy JW39. This galaxy, one of many jellyfish galaxies Hubble has observed over the past two years, lies around 900 million light-years away in the constellation Coma Berenices.

Hubble Photographs a Moving Galaxy!

What are the effects of galaxy clusters on the shape and gas content of galaxies?

Although it seems serene, this jellyfish galaxy is actually drifting in a galaxy cluster, which is an extremely dangerous environment. The gravitational attraction of larger companions frequently warps galaxies in galaxy clusters, twisting them into a variety of designs.

Additionally, a searingly hot plasma known as the intrascluster medium dominates the area between galaxies in a cluster. Despite the extreme thinness of this plasma, galaxies moving through it have an almost current-like sensation, and this interaction can deplete galaxies of star-forming gas.

What Phenomenon Creates the Distinctive Trailing Tentacles in Jellyfish Galaxies?

Ram-pressure stripping, or the interaction between the intracluster medium and the galaxies, is what causes the jellyfish galaxy’s trailing tentacles. As JW39 traveled through the cluster, the intracluster medium’s pressure sucked away gas and dust, creating long trailing ribbons of star formation that now extend away from the galaxy’s disk.

What is the impact of harsh environments on star formation in drifting jellyfish galaxy?

Astronomers used Hubble’s Wide Field Camera 3 to investigate these trailing tendrils in great detail because they represent a particularly hostile environment for star formation.

Surprisingly, researchers found little difference between star production in the galaxy disk and star formation in the ‘tentacles’ of drifting jellyfish galaxies.

Hubble Space Telescope Captures Drifting Jellyfish Galaxy That are Located Over 900 Million Light-Years Away

The drifting jellyfish galaxy JW39, located in the constellation Coma Berenices and situated over 900 million light-years away, has been captured by NASA/ESA’s Hubble Space Telescope.

This peculiar galaxy finds itself adrift within a galaxy cluster. In such clusters, the gravitational forces exerted by larger neighboring galaxies often cause distortions, resulting in galaxies assuming various shapes.

Furthermore, the space between galaxies within the cluster is influenced by a scorching-hot plasma known as the medium.

While this plasma may be tenuous, galaxies moving through it experience its effects akin to a swimmer battling against a strong current, resulting in the stripping away of their star-forming gas.

Astronomers using NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope have discovered what they believe to be some of the greatest evidence yet for the presence of a rare type of “intermediate-sized” black hole lurking in the heart of the nearest globular star cluster to Earth, about 6,000 light-years distant.

What are the formation, distribution, and rarity of intermediate-mass black holes?

Almost all black holes appear to come in two sizes, similar to strong gravitational pits in the fabric of space: small and gargantuan. Our galaxy is thought to be strewn with 100 million tiny black holes (many times the mass of our Sun) formed by exploding stars. The cosmos is teeming with supermassive black holes, which are situated in the centers of galaxies and weigh millions or billions of times the mass of our Sun.

An intermediate-mass black hole, weighing between 100 and 100,000 solar masses, is a long-sought missing link.

How would they form, where would they congregate, and why do they appear to be so uncommon?

Using a variety of observational approaches, astronomers have detected more probable intermediate-sized black holes. Three of the finest possibilities — 3XMM J215022.4055108, discovered by Hubble in 2020, and HLX-1, discovered in 2009 — live in dense star clusters on the edges of neighboring galaxies. Each of these hypothetical black holes has tens of thousands of suns in mass and may have formerly resided in the centers of dwarf galaxies. NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory has also aided in the discovery of numerous probable intermediate black holes, including a large sample in 2018.

Much closer to home, a number of probable intermediate-sized black holes have been discovered in dense globular star clusters around our Milky Way galaxy. For example, Hubble researchers reported the possible presence of an intermediate-mass black hole in the globular cluster Omega Centauri in 2008. These and other intermediate-mass black hole discoveries remain inconclusive and do not rule out alternate hypotheses for a variety of reasons, including the need for further data.

Eduardo Vitral:

Hubble’s unique capabilities have now been utilized to hone in on the core of the globular star cluster Messier 4 (M4), allowing for more precise black-hole hunting than prior efforts. “You can’t do this kind of science without Hubble,” said Eduardo Vitral, lead author of an article to be published in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.

What Vitral’s team discovered and what was its significance?

Vitral’s team discovered a probable 800 solar-mass intermediate-sized black hole. Although the alleged object cannot be seen, its mass can be determined by observing the motion of stars caught in its gravitational field, similar to bees swarming around a hive. Measuring their movement needs time and precision. This is where Hubble achieves something that no other modern telescope can. Astronomers examined 12 years of Hubble M4 data and resolved pinpoint stars.

His team believes the black hole in M4 could be 800 times the mass of our Sun. Alternative possibilities for this object, such as a compact center cluster of unresolved stellar remains like neutron stars or smaller black holes revolving around one other, are ruled out by Hubble’s observations.

Eduardo Vitral:

“We are confident that we have a very small region with a large concentration of mass.” “It’s about three times smaller than the densest dark mass we’ve found in other globular clusters,” Vitral added. “When we consider a collection of black holes, neutron stars, and white dwarfs segregated at the cluster’s center, the region is more compact than what we can reproduce with numerical simulations.” They are not capable of forming such a dense concentration of mass.”

Credits: NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center; Lead Producer: Paul Morris

What is the nature of the central mass in the globular cluster and its impact on stellar motions?

A collection of closely packed objects would be dynamically unstable. If the object isn’t a single intermediate-sized black hole, the observed stellar motions would require an estimated 40 smaller black holes squeezed into an area only one-tenth of a light-year across. As a result, they would merge and/or be expelled in an interplanetary pinball game. “We measure the motions and positions of stars and apply physical models to try to reproduce these motions.”

“We end up with a measurement of a dark mass extension in the center of the cluster,” Vitral explained. “The stars move more randomly as they get closer to the central mass.” And, as the center mass increases, so do the stellar velocities.”

Because intermediate-mass black holes in globular clusters have been so difficult to find, Vitral warns, “While we cannot completely confirm that it is a central point of gravity, we can show that it is very small.” It’s too little for us to explain anything other than a solitary black hole. Alternatively, there could be a stellar mechanism that we are simply unaware of, at least in terms of present physics.”


This view from the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope shows the globular cluster NGC 6325, which is closely packed.  Glistening Star Cluster is located in the constellation Ophiuchus, approximately 26,000 light-years from Earth.


How do astronomers use globular clusters to study the birth of stars?

Globular clusters, such as NGC 6325, are tightly bonded groups of stars with tens of thousands to millions of members. They can be found in all kinds of galaxies and serve as real-world research facilities for astronomers who investigate the birth of stars. Because the constituent stars of globular clusters tend to develop at around the same time and with comparable starting compositions, astronomers may use them to fine-tune their theories of how stars grow.

Why did astronomers focus on

Glistening Star Cluster

 examining this particular cluster?

Astronomers examined this particular cluster

 in order to find a hidden monster rather than to understand star formation better. Though it appears to be serene, astronomers believe this cluster contains an intermediate-mass black hole that subtly alters nearby stars’ velocity. Previous research discovered that the dispersion of stars in some highly concentrated globular clusters – those with stars packed relatively tightly together – differed slightly from what astronomers predicted.

How did researchers investigate the possibility of a black hole in NGC 6325?

This discrepancy shows that a black hole may be hiding at the center of at least part of these tightly packed globular clusters, maybe NGC 6325. To investigate this concept further, researchers used Hubble’s Wide Field Camera 3 to observe a broader sample of densely packed globular clusters, including this star-studded image of NGC 6325. This image also includes data from Hubble’s Advanced Camera for Surveys.

In the center of this photograph taken by the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope lies a massive galaxy cluster.  This huge cosmic creature can be detected by looking at the ripples it creates in spacetime. It’s like a sea monster swimming beneath the surface of the ocean. The cluster is so big that it bends the light from faraway galaxies, making them look different. This image shows twisted lines and curves of light. The cluster is surrounded by many other galaxies, and there are a few stars in the foreground that have diffraction spikes.

galaxy cluster
Image credit: ESA/Hubble & NASA, H. Ebeling

What is the significance of eMACS J1823.1+7822?

The galaxy cluster eMACS J1823.1+7822 is located in the Draco constellation and is almost nine billion light-years away. Hubble studied five really big galaxy clusters to measure how strong their gravitational lenses are. This helps us understand where dark matter is in these clusters. 

How can gravitational lenses help astronomers study faraway galaxies?

Gravitational lenses, such as eMACS J1823.1+7822, can help astronomers study faraway galaxies. These lenses act like giant telescopes, making faint or distant objects appear bigger and clearer.

What instruments were used to capture the image of the galaxy cluster and how do they work?

This picture combines information from eight filters and two instruments: Hubble’s Advanced Camera for Surveys and Wide Field Camera 3. Both instruments can see space objects by using filters that capture specific wavelengths of light. This helps astronomers take pictures of objects at precise wavelengths. Astronomers use different types of observations to get a better understanding of an object’s structure, composition, and behavior. This helps them see more than what visible light alone can show.

Hubble captures “shadow puppets” as scientists observe the young star TW Hydrae with NASA’s iconic space telescope.”

Prior Observation of the Shadows:

In 2017, scientists reported finding a shadow moving across the surface of the red dwarf star’s encircling gas and dust disk, which has the appearance of a large pancake. The inner disk, which is slightly tilted in relation to the much larger outer disk and casts the shadow, not a planet, is to blame. One hypothesis is that the gravity of an undiscovered planet is drawing gas and dust into its inclination orbit.

Recent Observation of the Shadows:

Now, a second shadow has appeared in just a few years between observations kept in Hubble’s MAST archive, playing peek-a-boo. This might come from a hidden disk inside the system. The existence of the two disks suggests that there are currently two planets being built.

Hubble observes shadow play on a planet-forming disk!
Credits: Artwork: NASA, AURA/STScI for ESA, Leah Hustak (STScI)

What is TW Hydrae and what is its significance?

TW Hydrae is a star that is 200 light-years away and less than 10 million years old. 4.6 billion years ago, when our solar system was still young, it might have resembled the TW Hydrae system. The TW Hydrae system is an ideal target for gaining a bull’s-eye view of a planetary construction yard since it is turned nearly face-on to our view from Earth.

Observations made on June 6, 2021, as part of a multi-year mission to track the shadows in circumstellar disks, revealed the second shadow. In Baltimore, Maryland, at the Space Telescope Science Institute, John Debes of AURA/STScI for the European Space Agency compared the TW Hydrae disk to earlier Hubble observations.

Explanation of the chief investigator about the Hubbles’ image:

Debes, who served as the study’s chief investigator and lead author, said, “We found out that the shadow had done something completely different,” She explains, “When I first looked at the data, I thought something had gone wrong with the observation because it wasn’t what I was expecting. I was flummoxed at first, and all my collaborators were like: what is going on? We really had to scratch our heads and it took us a while to actually figure out an explanation.”

Best Explanation:

The best explanation the team could come up with is that two shadows are being cast by mismatched disks. They were overlooked in the earlier inspection because they were so close to one another. They eventually split apart and became two separate shadows. This is something we’ve never truly seen on a protoplanetary disk before. The system becomes considerably more intricate than we first believed, he said.

Credits: NASA, ESA, STScI, and John Debes (AURA/STScI for ESA); Image Processing: Joseph DePasquale (STScI)
Credits: NASA, ESA, STScI, and John Debes (AURA/STScI for ESA); Image Processing: Joseph DePasquale (STScI)

What is the cause of the misaligned disks in the TW Hydrae system?

The gravitational force of two planets in slightly different orbital planes is most likely what is causing the misaligned disks, according to the simplest explanation. Hubble is assembling a comprehensive picture of the system’s architecture.

The disks could be substitutes for planets that are circling the star and lapping one another. It resembles slightly varying the speeds of two vinyl phonograph records. Labels may coincide occasionally, but eventually one overtakes the other.

The two planets must be rather close to one another, according to the evidence. If one was traveling considerably more quickly than the other, earlier observations would have shown this. It’s similar to two race cars that are parallel to one another, but one gradually passes and laps the other, Debes added.

Where the presumed planets are situated?

The presumed planets are situated in an area roughly where Jupiter is from our Sun. Additionally, the shadows orbit the star once every 15 years, which is the expected orbital period given their proximity to the star.

What is the evidence for an outer planet in the TW Hydrae system, and why are inner planets challenging to detect?

Additionally, the angle between these two inner disks and the plane of the outer disk is between five and seven degrees. The variety of orbital inclinations within our solar system is equivalent to this. This architecture fits the typical solar system style, according to Debes.

Outer Planet:

The outer disk on which the shadows are cast could be several times as large as the Kuiper belt of our solar system. At a distance twice as far from the Sun as Pluto’s typical distance, this bigger disk contains an odd gap. This could be proof that the system contains a third planet.

Inner Planet:

Any inner planets would be challenging to find since their light would be obscured by the star’s brightness. Their reflected light would also be diminished by dust in the system. If Jupiter-mass planets are pulling on the star, ESA’s Gaia space observatory might be able to detect a wobble, although this would take years due to the planets’ lengthy orbital periods.

The Hubble Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph provided the TW Hydrae data. The infrared vision of the James Webb Space Telescope might also be able to reveal the shadows in greater detail.

Astronomers have published stunning photographs of the nearby star-forming area NGC 1333 taken by NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope in honor of the telescope’s 33rd birthday. These images demonstrate the telescope’s extraordinary capabilities. The Hubble 33rd anniversary images offer an incredible view of the cosmic womb where new stars form. The nebula is located in the Perseus molecular cloud, which is about 960 light-years away.

Hubble 33rd Anniversary Images
Image Credit: NASA, ESA, and STScI; Image Processing: Varun Bajaj (STScI), Joseph DePasquale (STScI), Jennifer Mack (STScI)

The ultraviolet and near-infrared imaging capabilities of the Hubble Space Telescope reveal a vibrant picture of a bubbling pot of incandescent gasses and pitch-black dust being pushed and stirred by hundreds of newborn stars. Hubble’s limited view is because the star-forming firestorm is obscured by denser clouds of fine dust (basically soot) near the image’s bottom. The image’s blackness is not due to a lack of contrast but rather to dust particles.

Now we should be elaborating,

How Hubble’s Ultraviolet and Infrared Imaging Unveils the Inner Workings of Star-Forming Regions?

To take this image, Hubble images through the dust at the edge of a massive cloud of cold molecular hydrogen, the raw material for creating new stars and planets in the unrelenting grip of gravity. This picture illustrates how chaotic our cosmos can be and how star formation is difficult.

Strong stellar winds are ripping through a dusty veil, most likely coming from the blue star at the image’s top. Blue light from the stars is diffused by the tiny dust.

One may see a second, brighter, super-hot star farther down, beaming through hazy dust filaments like the Sun through a patchwork of clouds.  Dust is filtering starlight, enabling more of the red spectrum to pass through, giving a diagonal string of fainter companion stars a reddish appearance.

You may see a small window into the dark nebula at the bottom of the image. Hubble captures the crimson glow of ionized hydrogen. It’s like BOOM BOOM BOOM! So many fireworks all at the same time! Newly formed stars beyond the field of view are responsible for this phenomenon by sending out pencil-thin jets. These stars have tremendous magnetic fields that send out two parallel beams of hot gas into space, resembling a double lightsaber from science fiction movies, and circumstellar disks, which may one day form planetary systems. They use laser light shows to trace patterns onto the hydrogen cocoon, which they then sculpt. If a star has jets, it means that it has just been born.

Finally, we should be discussing,

Our Solar System’s Origins and Hubble’s Role in Astronomy:

4.6 billion years ago, our Sun and planets originated inside a dusty molecular cloud like the one depicted here. Our Sun did not begin in a vacuum; it was part of a mosh pit of frenetic star birth, maybe more powerful and massive than NGC 1333.

On April 25, 1990, astronauts on-board the Space Shuttle Discovery from NASA released Hubble into Earth orbit. The renowned telescope has made around 1.6 million observations of nearly 52,000 astronomical objects so far. Located in Baltimore, Maryland, the Space Telescope Science Institute houses the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes, which serves as a repository for a vast amount of astronomical data.


Published by: Sky Headlines