You will be surprised to know that a new, and giant sunspot solar flare is currently visible, and to put the icing on the cake, it’s four times bigger than the size of the Earth and can be seen with the naked eye.

Sounds intriguing?

Yes, it is!

If you are an astrology person and love to gaze moon, and stars, then to your surprise, you can see this sunspot with the human eye. So, witness it before it’s too late.

Now, let’s get a deep overview of this crisp news, by seeing how you can see this giant sunspot, what is the largest-ever solar flare in history, and much other significant information that you will find worth reading.

Solar Dynamics Observatory, showing the size of sunspot
credit: Bum-Suk Yeom

Sun Activity May 31st, 2023. Giant Sunspot Solar Flare Today!

It should be known that the central point of solar activity remains concentrated in the southwest region of our sun.

The area where remarkable phenomena like prominences and exploding filaments continue to occur. So, if you are wondering how giant sunspot solar flares and prominences are related, then it is quite understood.

Solar prominences are just like plasma pools, that connect two sunspots.

And it is worth noting that sunspot AR3310, which had previously moved away from our view on the southwest limb, has shown a reappearance in the activity beyond the visible solar horizon.

On May 31, at 01:17 UTC, we witnessed a filament eruption from this area. Additionally, the southwest region also witnessed the most significant flare in the past day: an M1.4 eruption originating from the giant sunspot region AR3315 at 13:38 UTC on May 30. 

You can effortlessly observe this sunspot with the naked eye, but obviously with the right, and appropriate eye protection. As this giant sunspot will soon rotate out of view in a matter of days, you should hurry, if you want to see it!

But, what are the Solar Flares? Do Solar Flares Come From Sunspots?

Over the next two weeks, as these active regions rotate across the surface of the sun, so there is a possibility of significant eruptions referred to as “solar flares.”

It is important to note that these eruptions can have potential impacts on satellite and spacecraft operations, power systems, radio communications, and navigation systems here on Earth, leading to possible disruptions.

Anticipating the current situation, let’s dig deep into the scientific, and updated information on solar flares causing disturbances. 

How Will Giant Sunspots Affect the Earth? Will it Have Some Aftereffects too?

One thing that you should keep in mind is that during periods of sunspot activity, an escalation in solar flares is expected, leading to heightened geomagnetic storm activity affecting Earth.

Consequently, during maximum sunspots, there will be a boom in the occurrence of the Northern and Southern Lights, also known as auroras, along with potential disruptions in radio transmissions and power grids.

Hold on, yes we know you got stuck at “awe-inspiring Auroras”, but let’s see if something hazardous occurs if any sunspot explodes.

What Happens if Giant Sunspot Explodes?

If any disturbing thing happened, and this explosion occurred while the sunspot was directed towards Earth, there is a potential for a G5-class solar storm to occur.

Such a powerful solar storm can damage satellites, disrupt mobile networks and internet connectivity, and even result in power grid failures.

So, let’s see if our Earth has been ever hit by any giant sunspot in history. Let’s uncover some truth, and surprising backgrounds too!

Has the Massive Solar Flare Ever Hit the Earth?

It would be to your surprise that Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) and their less potent counterparts, solar flares, occur frequently and have impacted our planet on multiple occasions!

One notable instance took place in September 1859 when a powerful solar storm hit Earth, causing significant damage to emerging communication technologies.

And if you are worrying about the effect of Earth, and not just on Earth, but humans too, let us unveil a fact here too!

As solar flares emit high-energy particles and radiation that can be hazardous to living organisms. So, if you are wondering about solar flares’ effects on humans, then fortunately, the Earth’s magnetic field and atmosphere protect against the effects of solar flares!

Now, let’s move toward the most commonly asked question that is sure also hitting you!

Will a Solar Flare Hit the Earth in 2025?

According to Berger, a senior space editor:

“There is a possibility of a significant eruption from the sun impacting Earth anytime from now until 2028 or 2029”

While this occurrence is unlikely to have a direct impact on everyday life, it emphasizes the need for NASA and satellite operators to remain vigilant and closely monitor solar activity!

Final Verdict:

Giant sunspot solar flare 2023 has been amazing, and before direct gazing at the sun, it is important to make sure that you have properly donned solar glasses, and it is equally important to avoid your direct eyes from the sun before removing the glasses.

Even minimal exposure to the sun’s unfiltered light can result in lasting harm to your eyes. So, fellas, safety first!

What are solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CME) and how do they affect Earth’s magnetic field?

Solar flares and CMEs (coronal mass ejections) are powerful events that happen in the solar system. They send a lot of energy toward Earth’s magnetic field in the form of plasma gas. This can cause problems for power grids, satellites, and communication networks. Scientists have been trying to figure out how particles get accelerated during big solar energetic events. It’s a big question in the field of heliophysics.


Dr. Gang Li:

A professor named Dr. Gang Li from The University of Alabama in Huntsville wrote a paper called “Modeling Solar Energetic Neutral Atoms from Solar Flares and CME-driven Shocks”. This paper explains how we can use energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) to learn about how solar flares and CME-driven shocks accelerate particles. This is the first time anyone has shown how ENAs can be used to differentiate between the two acceleration sites.

How solar ENA particles are created and spread?

Dr. Li thinks that this work will make the heliophysics community more interested in studying how solar ENA particles are created and spread. This paper shows that ENAs can help tell the difference between CME/Flare SEP acceleration. This is important because it could help us measure solar ENAs in the future.

Dr. Gary Zank:

According to Dr. Gary Zank, who is the director of UAH’s Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research and the Aerojet Rocketdyne chair of the Department of Space Science, Dr. Li’s work is a new and innovative way to study how particles are accelerated in the sun’s atmosphere from a distance.

What are ENAs and how are they used in space science?

The Department of Space Science is working hard to explore faraway parts of space using ENAs. These ENAs are made in the outer edges of the heliosphere and nearby interstellar space. By studying these ENAs, we can learn more about the plasma physics of these areas.

Dr. Li:

Dr. Li explains that ENAs are used to gather information about physics parameters at acceleration sites. Particles can be speeded up in two places: solar flares or CME-driven shock. Scientists have found this out. Which site is better at speeding up particles? What site can make particles go faster? People often argue about these questions, but we don’t have a definite answer.

Why the sun is the biggest challenge in understanding the physical processes involved in producing SEP events?

The sun is the biggest challenge in solving these mysteries through experiments because we can’t directly measure the conditions near the acceleration sites. This makes it difficult to understand the physical processes involved in producing SEP events.

How could ENAs provide answers to these mysteries?

ENAs could be a new way to provide answers. They are made from hydrogen atoms and come from reactions where protons change. They are neutral particles. Neutral objects are not influenced by magnetic fields.

Why are neutral particles important in studying the sun’s activity?

Dr. Li explains that neutral particles are important because they are not affected by the solar wind MHD turbulence as they travel from the sun to observers. Protons, ions, and electrons are charged particles that travel from the sun to Earth. However, their journey is affected by the magnetic field of the solar wind, which causes them to be distorted. ENAs contain all the physics information from where they were accelerated. Watching them gives us a chance to better understand how particles are accelerated.

What are energetic atoms and how are they measured?

Energetic atoms can share their secrets from a distance of 150 million kilometers away from the sun. This is called 1 astronomical unit. At this distance, a special detector can still measure the ENAs. NASA may launch a new solar mission to learn more about the particles that cause large space weather events and how they affect Earth’s magnetic field. This mission could be a result of efforts to collect more data on the topic.

How can simulations help us understand future ENA observations?

Dr. Li says that our simulation can help us understand future ENA observations. NASA is probably considering studying solar ENA in the future, and they might do this through a mission like the NASA SMEX mission. By focusing on ENA measurements and filtering out charged SEPs, a special mission could give us new insights into how SEPs are accelerated near the sun. This could help us answer some of the questions that have puzzled scientists for a long time.

Dr. Zank:

Dr. Zank is part of a new NASA mission called IMAP. They will use ENA instruments at 1 astronomical unit to measure ENAs created in the far reaches of the heliosphere and from the sun.

Have you ever heard of a solar storm? These fascinating and dangerous phenomena occur when the Sun releases a burst of energy in the form of charged particles and electromagnetic radiation into space, which can cause geomagnetic storms on Earth. However, if you are wondering what would happen if a solar storm were to hit Earth, or what it would take for us to reverse its effects, then you are not alone in your curiosity. Moreover, you may have questioned whether solar storms pose any real danger to humanity or if they are merely a misconception. For all your questions, we are here to answer.

First, let’s find out:

What is a Solar Storm?

Solar storms are a fascinating yet dangerous phenomenon that occurs due to the sun’s complex magnetic field. A solar storm is a natural phenomenon that occurs when the Sun releases large amounts of charged particles and electromagnetic radiation into space. A solar storm is a burst of energy emanating from the sun’s surface through charged particles and electromagnetic radiation.

According to atmospheric and space scientist Aaron Ridley of the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor: “We understand a little bit about how these solar storms form, but we can’t predict [them] well,”

This continuous stream of particles and radiation is known as the solar wind. However, sometimes the Sun releases more energetic bursts of charged particles called coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The sun’s corona rejected these massive clouds of plasma and magnetic fields. They can travel at high speeds toward Earth. When these particles interact with Earth’s magnetic field, they can cause geomagnetic storms.

solar flare
NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory captured this image of a solar flare on Oct. 2, 2014. Credits: NASA/SDO

Moreover, you should know:

What Happens When a Solar Storm Hits Earth?

When a solar storm occurs, it can send coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and shock waves hurtling toward Earth. These events can create

geomagnetic storms when they interact with the planet’s magnetic field. The storms can trigger auroras or Northern and Southern Lights, which are beautiful natural displays of colorful lights in the sky. However, these charged particles can also cause significant disruptions in electronic systems. Geomagnetic storms can cause disturbances in Earth’s power grids and navigation systems and disrupt radio communication. A massive solar flare that occurred on August 7, 1972, triggered an intense magnetic storm that disrupted radio waves, telecommunication networks, and power systems. While auroras are a stunning sight, the effects of a solar storm hitting Earth can be significant and potentially damaging.

Note: What are Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs)?

Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are the most potent source of solar storms. The sun’s corona ejected these massive clouds of plasma and magnetic fields. They can travel at speeds of up to 3 million miles per hour. Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) are large bubbles of plasma from the Sun’s corona, consisting of strong magnetic field lines that are discharged into space over several hours.

coronal mass ejections
This movie, captured by NASA’s Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). It shows two eruptions from the Sun called coronal mass ejections, which blasted charged particles into space on Oct. 28 and 29, 2003.Credits: NASA/ESA

Fortunately, We are safe. However, there is another question that arises:

Do Solar Storms Affect Humans?

The answer is no! However, solar storms do not directly affect human health. They can impact the technology we rely on in our daily lives. Solar storms can affect humans, including disruption of communication and navigation systems, damage to electrical grids, and radiation exposure. When a solar storm hits Earth, it can produce powerful electromagnetic fields that induce electrical currents in power lines and pipelines. It potentially leads to blackouts and infrastructure damage.

Solar radiation storms can also pose a risk to astronauts and airline crew and passengers. As they can be exposed to high levels of radiation. For example, a severe solar storm in 1989 caused a power outage in Quebec that lasted for 12 hours. In today’s increasingly connected world, the effects of such an event would be much more widespread and devastating.

NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center’s Heliophysics Science Division Associate Director for Science is Alex Young. He says: “We live on a planet with a very thick atmosphere… that stops all of the harmful radiation that is produced in a solar flare”.  Moreover, he says: “Even in the largest events that we’ve seen in the past 10,000 years, we see that the effect is not enough to damage the atmosphere such that we are no longer protected,”

You may not worry if you are wondering:

When is the Next Solar Storm Expected?

Solar storms are a natural phenomenon. The frequency and intensity of solar storms vary based on the sun’s activity cycle, which lasts about 11 years. Currently, we are in a minimum solar phase where the Sun is relatively quiet. And the number of solar storms is low. However, the next solar maximum phase is expected to occur around 2025. During this phase, solar activity is at its highest, and the frequency and intensity of solar storms are likely to increase.

Despite studying the Sun for decades, scientists have yet to determine what causes these storms to erupt or how to predict when the next solar storm will occur. However, NASA has several satellites, including the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). It monitors the Sun’s activity and provides warnings of a potential storm. Additionally, ongoing missions like the Parker Solar Probe are collecting data that will help scientists better understand the Sun and its behavior. It leads to more accurate predictions of when the next solar storm may occur.

The AI got us covered with,



How it Works and its Potential Impact!

DAGGER’s developers compared the model’s predictions to measurements made during solar storms in August 2011 and March 2015. At the top, colored dots show measurements made during the 2011 storm. Credits: V. Upendran et al.

The DAGGER model (formally, Deep Learning Geomagnetic Perturbation) is an innovative computer model that uses artificial intelligence (AI) to predict and quickly identify geomagnetic disturbances or perturbations that could affect our technology. To develop this model, a team of international researchers from the Frontier Development Lab used deep learning AI to recognize patterns between solar wind measurements and geomagnetic perturbations observed at ground stations globally. The team utilized real measurements from heliophysics missions such as ACE, Wind, IMP-8, and Geotail to train the computer and develop the DAGGER model.

Advantages of DAGGER

DAGGER can predict geomagnetic disturbances worldwide 30 minutes before they occur, making it faster and more accurate than previous prediction models. The computer model can provide predictions in less than a second. And the predictions update every minute, providing prompt and precise information for sites globally. The team tested DAGGER against two geomagnetic storms that occurred in August 2011 and March 2015 and found that DAGGER was able to quickly and accurately forecast the storm’s impacts around the world.

Professor Vishal Upendran of India’s Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics. He authored a paper on the DAGGER model for Space Weather. It says: “With this AI, it is now possible to make rapid and accurate global predictions and inform decisions in the event of a solar storm. Thereby minimizing – or even preventing – devastation to modern society,”

Unlike previous models that produced local geomagnetic forecasts for specific locations on Earth or global predictions that weren’t very timely, DAGGER combines the swift analysis of AI with real measurements from space and across the Earth to generate frequently updated predictions that are prompt and precise for sites worldwide. Power grid operators, satellite controllers, and telecommunications companies can adopt the open-source computer code in the DAGGER model and apply the predictions to their specific needs. Such warnings could give them time to take action to protect their assets and infrastructure from an impending solar storm.

With models like DAGGER, there could be solar storm sirens that sound an alarm in power stations and satellite control centers worldwide. Similar to how tornado sirens warn of threatening terrestrial weather in towns and cities across America. The potential impact of the DAGGER model could be significant in mitigating the effects of solar storms on technology and infrastructure.


To Put It All Together:

Solar storms are an unpredictable force of nature that can seriously impact our society. Despite decades of research, scientists still cannot predict when the next solar storm will occur. However, the DAGGER model developed by NASA provides advanced warnings of impending solar storms. It gives organizations time to take necessary precautions. This development highlights the potential of AI in space weather forecasting and its critical role in mitigating the impact of natural disasters on our technology-dependent world.


Published by: Sky Headlines

We all know a fact that the ocean holds a lot of mysteries. And that is why the black hole in the ocean is one of them. From underwater volcanoes to the Bermuda Triangle, black holes astonish scientists a lot.

If we say that ocean whirlpools are different from whirlpools in space. Then we would not be wrong here. But they have some important similarities too. So, keep reading to learn about this strange event and how experts think it could help with the climate crisis.

What is the Black Hole in the Ocean & its Entities? Let’s Find Out!

A black hole in space basically constitutes a dark region that is inescapable.  Though oceanic black holes don’t exist in a strict manner. That is why the difference between these two must exist.

Black Hole in the Ocean

Over the years, scientists have seen huge spinning currents in the ocean called eddies. These powerful swirls of water can pull things into them. Does this sound familiar? The reason some experts compare these eddies to black holes is that they’re quite similar in certain ways.

More Details About the Eddies That You Didn’t Know:

According to Science Daily, some of the biggest ocean swirls can be as wide as 150 kilometers (about 93 miles). These swirling areas are not just strong, but they also help move things and creatures around.

Different things and living things get caught in these swirls, like plastic, oil, and tiny creatures called plankton. Also, these swirling water spots can take in heat and dissolved carbon dioxide. Interestingly, this ability is why some scientists think that ocean swirls could help lessen some bad effects of climate change. We’ll talk more about this later on.

Why Scientists are so much Fascinating by Black hole in the ocean?

When scientists find something in the ocean that looks like a black hole, it gets a lot of attention. This is especially true when they find several of these things.

One important case happened near the bottom of Africa. There are two researchers, George Haller and Francisco Beron-Vera. They found out seven big ocean swirls there. They called them the Agulhas Rings. What’s really interesting is that these swirling water spots carried the same water around for a whole year without any spilling out. This showed that these swirling spots could move water around really well and keep it together.

How the In-depth Details of Eddies is Terrifying the Scientists?

  • Think black holes are only in space? Think again. Actually, the black hole in the ocean has swirling spots that trap everything in their way. What’s even scarier is that these ocean black holes are huge, sometimes as wide as 93 miles.
  • If you’re scared of creatures in the jungle, get ready for worse in the ocean. Creatures like the fangtooth, goblin shark, and frilled shark are scarier than their land relatives. And there are even more scary sea creatures we’re discovering. Just 11 years ago, we found the biggest colossal squid ever. Imagine what we’ll find in the next 11 years.
  • Hurricanes cause a lot of damage when they hit land, but they start in the ocean. And when these big storms hit land, it’s really bad. In 2017, 103 Americans died because of hurricanes like Harvey, Irma, Jose, and Maria. Solar flares and space storms bounce off our ozone layer harmlessly.
  • It makes sense to avoid sharks when you’re swimming, but watch out for jellyfish—they’re in the ocean by the millions and they can be more dangerous than sharks. Their poison and their ability to hide underwater make them more deadly than sharks. Once again, we haven’t found anything as scary in space.
  • Those sunken ships didn’t get there on their own. Often, people from shipwrecks stay in the ocean for a really long time. In 2014, divers found the remains of a girl in an underwater cave in Mexico. She might have been there for around 12,000 years. So, the ocean can also be a place where things are buried. Space doesn’t have this.
  • Even though lightning doesn’t hit the ocean as much as land, it’s really dangerous when it does. Water lets lightning travel fast, which can electrocute people, animals, and boats in the water.

Pictures of Black Hole in the Ocean:

Pictures of Black Hole

Is there a black hole in the ocean?

Indeed, black holes exist in the ocean, known as ocean eddies. Stay with us to delve into some of the remarkable ones. The ocean holds a plethora of enigmas. Amidst underwater volcanoes and the Bermuda Triangle, it likely didn’t astonish scientists much when they stumbled upon oceanic black holes.

How deep is the black hole in the ocean?

Discovered on South Andros Island, the Black Hole is a substantial, solitary pillar created through chemical erosion. Plunging to a depth of approximately 47 meters, it mirrors oceanic conditions from billions of years ago.

Eddies and Climate Connections

Are ocean black holes dangerous?

Just like black holes in space, the black hole in the ocean is impossible to escape from. In the swirling water spots, people, things, sea creatures, and even the water itself can’t get out. They stay stuck in these swirling spots.

Why do oceans have black holes?

Because they stay steady, ocean swirls that look like black holes are good at moving things around. They help move tiny living things like plankton, and also things like plastic trash and oil. These swirling spots also move water that has different levels of heat and salt compared to the water around them.

ocean swirls that look like black holes

How many black holes are in the ocean?

As we know that the term of black hole in the context of the ocean refers to stable ocean eddies. And it is not related to any astronomical phenomena. Furthermore, these eddies are countless in number and can vary in size. Also, their characteristics varies across different oceanic regions.

RHESSI satellite has a total mass of 270 kg but will disintegrate into gas and ash during impact. Experts predict that in the following days, a NASA spacecraft that is no longer operational will begin its uncontrolled descent to Earth.

According to their calculations, the US military expects the RHESSI satellite, which monitored the sun from 2002 until 2018, to hit Earth’s atmosphere on Wednesday at 9:30 p.m. You should adjust the time by 16 hours, give or take. During impact, RHESSI will disintegrate into gas and ash despite its weight of only 270 kilograms (670 pounds). Yet, we expect the spacecraft to retain some of its components despite the descent. On Monday (April 17), NASA authorities updated that the probability of endangering humans is approximately 1 in 2,467.

Before we discuss any details about the crash, we first need to have a look at the,

RHESSI’s mission and significance in solar research


NASA launched the Radiation Hardened Electron Sensor (RHESSI) spacecraft in 2002 to study the Sun’s high-energy particles, specifically those released during solar flares. During its time in space, RHESSI observed over 100,000 X-ray events, which provided valuable data for scientists to study the particles’ behavior during these events.

Scientists were able to piece together the source and mechanism of acceleration based on the data collected by RHESSI Satellite, which included the frequency, location, and motion of the energetic particles. Understanding the processes that occur during solar flares and how they affect Earth’s space environment requires this data.

Moreover, Astronauts are growing increasingly worried about a pressing concern that is,

The danger posed by space debris:

The RHESSI’s fall is a sobering reminder of how crowded and dangerous Earth’s orbit is getting. Global space monitoring networks currently track over 30,000 individual bits of orbital debris. Nonetheless, there are a great deal more bits that are too small to be tracked.

According to estimates by the European Space Agency, there are presently a million objects in Earth’s orbit, the smallest of which is 1 centimeter across. Over 130 million pieces exist between 0.04 inches (1 millimeter) to 0.4 inches. Little fragments traveling at such high speeds pose a serious threat to a manned spacecraft or satellite.

Several spacecraft in low Earth orbit average around 28,160 kilometers per hour (17,500 miles per hour). When galaxies crash into one another, they disseminate their debris all over space, making future collisions more likely. The ability to explore and utilize space could be severely hampered in the case of a Kessler Syndrome cascade.

In February 2002, a Pegasus XL rocket put RHESSI Satellite into low Earth orbit. Since then, it has been studying solar flares and coronal mass ejections. The satellite has a single science instrument, an imaging spectrometer that records X-rays and gamma rays.

Lastly, if you are wondering,

Is this the first spacecraft that will crash to Earth?

The answer is straightforward no! When it crashes to Earth, RHESSI won’t be the largest piece of space junk to do so. In November, for instance, roughly five days after launching the third and final module for China’s Tiangong space station, the rocket’s 23-ton (21-metric-ton) core stage crashed down to Earth. To date, all four Long March 5B missions have ended with the huge core stage reentering the atmosphere without human intervention.


Published by: Sky Headlines

The exoplanet, TOI-3757 b is a gas giant planet that revolves around a K-type star. The mass of this exoplanet is about 0.27 times more than that of Jupiter and therefore it completes one circle around its star in just 3.4 days. If we talk about its distance, then it is located at approximately 0.038 AU from its K-type star, approx. Furthermore, if we talk about its discovery, then it was in 2022. 

This planet is unique because it has an incredibly low density, similar to that of a marshmallow. Even though red dwarf stars are cooler than stars like our Sun, they can still be very active and produce strong flares that could potentially strip away a planet’s atmosphere.

Planetary scientists suggested two ideas for the planet’s marshmallow-like atmosphere:

Gas giants like Jupiter initially form from rocky cores that are several times more massive than Earth. As the solar system takes shape, these central cores attract surrounding gas. However, in the case of TOI-3757 b, which orbits a red dwarf star with fewer heavy elements than other similar stars, the rocky core formation may have been slower. This delayed the process of accumulating the surrounding gas.

As a result, TOI-3757 b ended up with a less dense and fluffier atmosphere compared to other gas giants like Jupiter that orbit stars with more heavy elements. TOI-3757’s orbit around its red dwarf star could be elliptical.

NOIRLab explains:

“There are times it gets closer to its star than at other times, resulting in substantial excess heating that can cause the planet’s atmosphere to bloat”

The Reason Behind the Low Density of TOI-3757 b:

The exoplanet, TOI-3757 b, is very interesting to astronomers because it possesses unique and distinct characteristics. This makes it one of the relatively few gas giants (around 10 in total) found orbiting M dwarf stars.

What’s particularly intriguing about TOI-3757 b is its low density, which is approximately 0.27 grams per cubic centimeter (g/cm³). The low density provides a valuable chance to study planet formation theories.

Two hypotheses are put forth to explain this low density:

  • Low Metallicity: The star hosting TOI-3757 b has a lower metallicity (around 0.3 dex lower) compared to the average metallicity of M dwarf stars that host gas giants. This lower metallicity might have contributed to the delayed formation of a solid core massive enough to trigger the rapid accumulation of gas.
  • Tidal Heating: It’s also possible that the eccentricity of TOI-3757 b’s orbit (solid estimation at 0.14 +/- 0.06) leads towards tidal heating, which could have expanded the planet’s radius. This, in turn, would result in the lower density observed.

Because of its low density and large scale height, TOI-3757 b is an excellent planet for studying its atmosphere using transmission spectroscopy. This research can reveal details about the atmosphere’s composition and how gases escape, with an estimated measurement of around 190 for transmission spectroscopy.

The Rocky Core & Elliptical Shape of TOI-3757b:

The unusually low density of TOI-3757b can be attributed to two key factors, as explained by astronomers.

Firstly, it’s related to the planet’s rocky core. Gas giants typically start as massive rocky cores, roughly ten times the mass of Earth. Cores quickly gather lots of nearby gas, becoming the gas giants we see now. However, TOI-3757’s host star has a lower concentration of heavy elements compared to other M-dwarf stars with gas giants. This difference may have caused the rocky core of TOI-3757b to form more slowly, delaying the initiation of gas accumulation, and consequently, influencing the planet’s overall density.

Secondly, the planet’s orbit is believed to be somewhat elliptical. At certain points in its orbit, it comes closer to its star than at other times. This proximity results in significant additional heating, causing the planet’s atmosphere to expand or bloat. This expansion contributes to the planet’s lower density.

What is TOI-3757 b?

TOI-3757 b is an exoplanet classified as a gas giant, and it orbits a K-type star. It has a mass approximately equal to 0.26838 times that of Jupiter. This exoplanet orbits its star in just 3.4 days and is very close, about 0.03845 AU away from it.

When was toi-3757 b discovered?

Discovered in 2022, TOI-3757 b is a gas giant orbiting a red dwarf star in the constellation Auriga, located about 580 light-years from Earth. It’s exceptionally low-density, akin to a marshmallow.

Is there a marshmallow planet?

TOI-3757 b, the lowest-density planet ever detected, has a density akin to a marshmallow. The measurement of this exoplanet is just 0.27 grams per cubic centimeter, which is less than half the density of Saturn.

Who discovered TOI-3757 b?

The discovery of TOI-3757b was possible through NASA’s Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS). It was subsequently confirmed using the Habitable-zone Planet Finder (HPF).

What is the diameter of TOI-3757 b?

TESS observed TOI-3757 b as it passed in front of its host star. It is enabling astronomers to determine that the planet’s diameter is approximately 150,000 kilometers (100,000 miles). Which makes it slightly larger than Jupiter.

Is the cotton candy planet real?

“Super-Puffs” might sound like the name of a breakfast cereal. But it’s a term which describes a special and uncommon category of young exoplanets. These planets are as light as cotton candy, and there’s nothing similar to them in our solar system.

Is there a pink planet?

GJ 504b is a fascinating magenta-colored exoplanet. This pinkish planet comprises of gases and looks somewhat like Jupiter, a huge gas giant in our solar system. However, GJ 504b is notably larger, with a mass approximately four times greater than that of Jupiter.

Significant Statements by Authors & Researchers:

TOI-3757b was discovered using NASA’s Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS). It is confirmed with the Habitable-zone Planet Finder (HPF) on the Hobby-Eberly Telescope and the NEID instrument on the WIYN 3.5-m telescope.

Jessica Libby-Roberts is an author of the new research on TOI-3757 b and a postdoctoral researcher at Pennsylvania State University, She says in a statement.

“Potential future observations of the atmosphere of this planet using NASA’s new James Webb Space Telescope could help shed light on its puffy nature,”

Dr. Jessica Libby-Roberts, a postdoctoral researcher at Pennsylvania State University, says:

“Potential future observations of the atmosphere of this planet using the NASA/ESA/CSA James Webb Space Telescope could help shed light on its puffy nature.”

Dr. Kanodia says:

“Finding more such systems with giant planets — which were once theorized to be extremely rare around red dwarfs — is part of our goal to understand how planets form.”

Since 1995, scientists have found more than 4,000 Earth-like exoplanets. It would surely be your surprise that these planets are outside our solar system. NASA’s Exoplanet Exploration page says the Kepler Space Telescope found most of these.  Astronomers really wanted to find the first “alien Earth.” The Earth-like planets in the Milky Way.  New discoveries show that many small, rocky planets like ours are all over the galaxy.

How Earth-like Exoplanets could Resemble the Earth?

A planet should be small and rocky, like Earth, if it wants to be a good place for life. Besides this, it also needs to be in the right spot around its star, not too hot or too cold. Henceforth, this special spot is sometimes called the “Goldilocks” zone, where it’s just right for liquid water on the planet. As telescopes get better, we’ll also look at other things like what the planet’s air is like and how active its star is.

Earth-like Exoplanets
(Image credit: Nazarii Neshcherenskyi via Getty Images)

Even though finding a planet just like Earth is hard, we’ve found some that are pretty close to being similar to our home.

Earth-like Exoplanets: Let’s Have a Quick Glance!

To answer your quest of how many Earth like planets are there in the universe. We have curated a list of Earth-like exoplanets. So, let’s have a keen and some valuable content!

Gliese 667Cc:

Exoplanets List and Names 2023
An artist’s impression of the surface of Gliese 667Cc. (Image credit: ESO/L. Calçada)

This planet is merely 22 light-years away from us. It’s at least 4.5 times heftier than Earth, as indicated by NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory. This exoplanet whirls around its host star in a mere 28 days, but here’s the twist. The star is a cooler red dwarf. Which is chillier than our sun. This chill factor led scientists to speculate that Gliese 667Cc resides within the habitable zone. Where conditions might allow liquid water to exist.

However, science says that it is one of the Earth-like Exoplanets, but a very noteworthy point arises. Gliese 667Cc was initially detected using the European Southern Observatory’s 3.6-meter telescope in Chile. And it might be positioned too close to the red dwarf. Because the exoplanet is so close to the red dwarf star, it could be in danger of getting heated up by the star’s strong bursts of light called flares.


Kepler-22b is positioned 600 light-years from us. It holds a unique distinction. It clinched the title of being the very first planet discovered by Kepler within its parent star’s habitable zone. However, there’s a catch. It is world dwarfs Earth in size. It is measuring about 2.4 times larger. What remains unclear is the composition of this “super-Earth.” Is it rocky, liquid, or perhaps gaseous? The answer is vague for now!

Besides this, let us tell you an interesting fact too. Kepler-22b’s orbit takes about 290 days, which bears a resemblance to Earth’s 365-day cycle.  Being one the resembled Earth-like Exoplanets, it circles a G-class star, akin to our sun, but with a twist. This star is smaller and cooler compared to our familiar sun.

Habitable Exoplanets
Artist’s illustration of Kepler-69c. (Image credit: NASA Ames/JPL-Caltech/T. Pyle)

This Earth like exoplanet Kepler-22b is located a vast 2,700 light-years away. It presents another enigma. This world succeed the Earth’s size by about 70 percent. However, the makeup of Kepler-69c remains a mystery, much like its counterparts.

Taking a closer look, Kepler-69c takes a brisk 242-day journey to complete one orbit around its star. This places it in a position in its own solar system similar to where Venus resides in ours. An interesting distinction arises in the form of Kepler-69c’s host star. It’s roughly 80 percent as radiant as our sun. Which if giving us a hit of the possibility that this planet snuggles within its star’s habitable realm.


NASA has discovered a planet called Kepler-62f. It is about 40% bigger than Earth. This planet goes around a star that’s cooler than our Sun. It takes 267 days for Kepler-62f to complete one orbit. And it’s in the part of space that’s just right for living things.

Here’s an interesting fact: Even though Kepler-62f is closer to its star than Earth is to the Sun, the star doesn’t give off as much light.

Kepler-62f is quite far away, around 1,200 light-years from us. It’s a good size for a planet, which means it might be rocky like Earth. And there’s a chance it could have oceans, which is pretty exciting!


This planet is just a little bit bigger than Earth, not more than 10% larger. Among the group of planets, one called TRAPPIST-1e stands out. Scientists think it could be a good place for life we know. It’s in the habitable zone, but it’s on the outer edge.

Earth-like Exoplanets
This illustration shows the TRAPPIST exoplanets nearest their star. (Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech)

Then there’s Kepler-186f. It’s different from Earth because it only gets a third of the energy from its star. This planet is about 500 light-years away from us.

Around a star called TRAPPIST-1, there’s an amazing group of planets. They’re the most Earth-sized planets we’ve found in a zone where conditions might be right for life. That is the reason science says it is one the most acceptable Earth-like exoplanets. There are seven of them altogether, and one of these special planets is called TRAPPIST-1e. It’s the most likely place where life could exist, at least as we know it.


Habitable Planets
A planet the size of Kepler-186f is likely to be rocky. (Image credit: NASA Ames/JPL-Caltech/T. Pyle)

Kepler-186f’s star is a red dwarf, which makes it not exactly like Earth. This interesting planet is signaling to us from a faraway distance of around 500 light-years.

What exoplanet is most like Earth?

Kepler-452b, occasionally dubbed as Earth 2.0 or Earth’s Cousin due to its features, is a captivating super-Earth exoplanet. This world gracefully revolves along the inner boundaries of its star Kepler-452’s habitable zone. Notably, Kepler-452b stands as the sole inhabitant of this planetary system. Its other identity, Kepler Object of Interest KOI-7016.01, holds relevance in the astronomical community.

Habitable zone
An artist’s impression compares Kepler 452b with Earth. (Image credit: NASA/Ames/JPL-Caltech/T. Pyle)

Are there any Earth-like exoplanets?

  • Gliese 667Cc.
  • Kepler-22b.
  • Kepler-69c.
  • Kepler-62f.
  • Kepler-186f.
  • Kepler-442b.
  • Kepler-452b.
  • Kepler-1649c.

What is the closest Earth-like exoplanets?

Merely four light-years distant, Proxima Centauri b holds the esteemed title of being our nearest known exoplanetary neighbor. This intriguing celestial body, known as Proxima b, falls within the super Earth category. It gracefully orbits an M-type star. Weighing in at 1.27 times the mass of Earth, this exoplanet completes its orbit around its star in a mere 11.2 days. Positioned at a distance of 0.0485 astronomical units (AU) from its star, Proxima b entered our awareness with its discovery announcement in 2016.

Have we found another planet like Earth?

NASA researchers have just unveiled an exciting discovery. They’ve come across a planet known as TOI 700 e, which boasts a striking resemblance to Earth. The size and shape of TOI 700 e are nearly identical to our own planet, standing at about 95%. Adding to its intrigue, this newfound world features a solid, rocky exterior. What’s even more captivating is that TOI 700 e occupies a special place within its star’s habitable zone, suggesting the tantalizing possibility of water existing on its surface.

Does Kepler-452b have humans?

The presence of life on Kepler-452b remains uncertain, yet intriguing parallels with Earth emerge. Notably, this exoplanet shares a resemblance with our own world. Kepler-452b, for instance, takes approximately 385 Earth days to gracefully complete its orbit around its star. This duration is just slightly extended compared to the span of one Earth year.

What habitable planet is 4 light years?

Astronomers have caused quite a stir with their latest revelations about Proxima b—an exoplanet deemed “highly habitable.” This distant world is merely a short 4.2 light-year hop away from Earth. The scientific community is abuzz with excitement as they contemplate the potential significance of this discovery. It’s believed that Proxima b might be making significant impact across the cosmos, as it possesses conditions that could support vast oceans of liquid water.

What other planet can we live on?

In the most recent turn of events, a groundbreaking discovery unfolded. Merely last year, scientists revealed the existence of yet another Earth-like planet. This remarkable world orbits around Proxima Centauri, one of our nearest neighboring stars. Remarkably, this planet stands as the prime contender in our search for a suitable habitat for human life.

Is there a planet like Earth in the habitable zone?

Using information from NASA’s Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite, scientists have done something incredible. They’ve found a planet called TOI 700 e that’s about the same size as Earth. It’s in a good spot around its star, where it’s not too hot or too cold. This special area is where water on a planet could be liquid.

How the Earth-like Exoplanets can Paves the Way in Space Science?

Finding star systems with planets like Earth in this special area is really important. It helps scientists learn more about how our own solar system began.

In the past, many of these planets might have lost their water when they were young. But in 2018, a study suggested that some of these planets could have even more water than Earth’s oceans.

Scientists define the hopeful habitable zone as the area around a star where there could have been liquid water at some point in the past. It goes beyond the more conservative habitable zone, where scientists think liquid water might have been possible for a long time.

The habitable exoplanet, SPECULOOS-2c or LP 890-9c, was found in September 2022. It circles its star every 8.5 Earth days at a distance of just 1.7 million miles (2.8 million kilometers), yet its diameter is 40% higher than Earth’s.

A Potentially Habitable Exoplanet is Near a Tiny Red Dwarf Star:

However, because the red dwarf is tiny and chilly, it can be cool even near the star. LP 890-9c  is close to the inner boundary of the star’s zone, which denotes the region in which a planet with an atmosphere similar to Earth might sustain liquid water on its surface.

Habitable Exoplanet is in Climatic Spheres:

LP 890-9c may be in many climatic and atmospheric states, and the James Webb Space Telescope may be able to discriminate between them, according to a new study conducted by Lisa Kaltenegger, director of the Carl Sagan Institute at Cornell University.

What is the Location of the Exoplanet?

Similar to how Venus is situated in our solar system, which is similarly at the inner border of the zone, LP 890-9c, Habitable Exoplanet is situated in its planetary system.

A planet in Venus’ position may continue to support life. Still, at some point over its 4.5 billion-year existence. Venus became enmeshed in a feedback loop caused by a runaway greenhouse effect.

Venus previously had water on its surface, but that evaporated due to the planet’s dense carbon dioxide atmosphere.

Why Some Planets Would Not Get Venus’s Identical Manner?

Only some planets towards the inner border of the zone will, however, develop in Venus’s identical manner. One is because Venus lacks a magnetic field to block the solar wind, a torrent of charged particles emanating from the sun.

As a result, the planet’s water supply was reduced due to the solar wind’s increased ability to transport away hydrogen atoms that the sun’s ultraviolet radiation had broken off water molecules.

LP 890-9c, habitable exoplanet could fend off the stellar wind from its star and preserve the water vapor in its atmosphere if it has a powerful magnetic field.

Kaltenegger said in a release:

“Looking at this planet will tell us what’s happening on the inner edge of the habitable zone—how long a rocky planet can maintain habitability when it starts to get hot,” 

The Crisp Details About the Chemical Composition of Habitable Exoplanets:

The planet was modeled by Kaltenegger’s team using measurements of its mass and radius.

The models also included assumptions about the planet’s chemical composition, surface pressure and temperature, atmospheric depth, and cloud cover. These later elements are unknown at the moment.

The planet may be cratered and devoid of atmosphere for all we know. This is a likely scenario given that red dwarfs are frequently subject to powerful flares that might rob an orbiting planet of its atmosphere.

Deep Analytical Study of the Characteristics of Exoplanets:

The group developed five distinct models that speculated on the characteristics of LP 890-9c, the Habitable Exoplanet. These varied from a hotter version of Earth to varying concentrations of atmospheric water vapor and greenhouse gases, with the ultimate model approaching Venus’s hellish atmosphere of choking carbon dioxide.

Three Transits Study of Exoplanet by JWST:

According to a separate study led by Jonathan Gomez Barrientos of the California Institute of Technology, JWST would only need to observe three transits of LP 890-9c, across the face of its host star to confirm the presence of a steamy, water-rich atmosphere. And eight transits would be sufficient to determine whether LP 890-9c is more like Venus, and 20 transits would be sufficient to find evidence for the still-hot Earth scenario.

Theoretically, it should only take six months to complete the observations because the planet transits its star every 8.5 Earth days.

Testament of Targets on Earth:

The first target where we may test these many possibilities is our planet, according to Kaltenegger.

“If it’s still a hotter Earth—hot, but with liquid water and conditions for life—then the inner edge of the habitable zone [around all stars] could be teeming with life.”

Although JWST cannot directly detect liquid water on the planet’s surface, it can establish whether the atmosphere is suitable for the presence of liquid water.

Even if LP 890-9c,  proves to be too hot for life, the discoveries may still have something to tell us about the future of Earth. Over a billion years, the sun will gradually become brighter and warmer as it matures, making Earth too hot for life and causing the seas to evaporate. We can learn more about Earth’s future by examining a planet other than Venus that has previously experienced this period or possibly has even managed to withstand it for the time being.

Let’s Conclude the Habitable Exoplanet with Kaltenegger’s Final Words:

“Habitable exoplanet will teach us something fundamental about how rocky planets change with rising starlight and about what will eventually happen to us and Earth.”

Sun Storms and Life’s Origins: A new study proposes that early building blocks of life on Earth could have resulted from solar eruptions.

Amino acids and carboxylic acids, the building blocks of proteins and organic life, can be formed when solar particles collide with gases in the early Earth’s atmosphere, as demonstrated by a series of chemical studies. The research results were printed in the journal Life.

Many researchers have spent time trying to deduce the processes that gave rise to amino acids, the building blocks of proteins and all cellular life. In the late 1800s, scientists proposed the idea that life may have begun in a “warm little pond”—a soup of chemicals that, when electrified by lightning, heat, or other energy sources, could mix in concentrated numbers to form organic molecules.

Now most of us often asked:


How did Stanley Miller attempt to simulate the conditions for the origin of life in the lab back in 1953?

The University of Chicago’s Stanley Miller attempted to simulate these early conditions in the lab back in 1953. Miller simulated lightning by repeatedly lighting an electrical spark within a sealed container filled with substances estimated to have been common in Earth’s early atmosphere, such as methane, ammonia, water, and molecular hydrogen. After a week of observation, Miller and his graduate advisor Harold Urey detected 20 unique amino acids in the chamber’s contents.

Now, let’s discuss,

What is the new theory proposed by Vladimir Airapetian regarding the origin of life on Earth?

“That was a big revelation,” said Vladimir Airapetian, a stellar astrophysicist at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, and co-author of the new research. These complex organic molecules can be synthesized from the simple elements that made up the early Earth’s atmosphere.

This understanding, however, has become more nuanced during the past 70 years. Current scientific consensus holds that more difficult-to-break-down gases like carbon dioxide (CO2) and molecular nitrogen (N2) dominated Earth’s atmosphere. Even at very low yields, these gases are still capable of producing amino acids.

Some researchers have suggested using the impact waves from meteors as a source of renewable energy. UV light from the sun has been mentioned by others. Using information gathered by NASA’s Kepler mission, Airapetian proposed a new theory: solar energetic particles.

Moreover, we should also know that,

Kepler’s Observations and Sun’s Origins

Kepler’s observations of distant stars at various ages reveal clues regarding the Sun’s origins. In 2016, Airapetian published a study indicating that the Sun was roughly 30% fainter during Earth’s first 100 million years. However, “superflares” from the sun, which are extremely powerful eruptions and occur only once every 100 years or so now, would have occurred every 3-10 days.

Superflares and Chemical Reactions

The near-light speed particles emitted by these superflares would frequently impact Earth’s atmosphere, setting off chemical reactions.

Collaboration with Yokohama National University

“As soon as I published that paper, the team from the Yokohama National University from Japan contacted me,” Airapetian explained. Dr. Kobayashi, a chemistry professor there, specialized in prebiotic chemistry for 30 years.

Galactic Cosmic Rays and Early Earth’s Atmosphere

He was pondering the possibility that galactic cosmic rays, or particles from beyond our solar system, affected the atmosphere of early Earth. Because of the need for specialized equipment like particle accelerators, “most investigators ignore galactic cosmic rays,” Kobayashi added.

Recreating Early Earth’s Atmosphere

The early Earth’s atmosphere has been recreated by Airapetian, Kobayashi, and their colleagues. They mixed in some methane along with carbon dioxide, molecular nitrogen, water, and water vapor. (It is unclear how much methane was present in the Earth’s early atmosphere, but it is likely to have been rather low.)

Comparing Protons and Spark Discharges

To make a direct comparison with the Miller-Urey experiment, they shot gas mixtures with protons (representing solar particles) or burned them with spark discharges (representing lightning).

Now, let’s find out,

What is the difference between the production of amino acids by lightning and solar particles?

Amino acids and carboxylic acids were created in noticeable levels by mixes fired by protons (solar particles) as long as the methane proportion was greater than 0.5%. However, amino acids couldn’t form until the methane concentration reached about 15% due to the spark discharges (lightning).

Solar Particles vs. Lightning

“And even at 15% methane, the production rate of the amino acids by lightning is a million times less than by protons,” Airapetian said. More carboxylic acids (a precursor of amino acids) were created when protons were used as an igniting source, as opposed to when spark discharges were used.

The Role of Early Earth’s Environment

If everything else is equal, solar particles seem like a better energy source than lightning. Airapetian speculated that not everything was equal, though. Miller and Urey imagined lightning was as common in the era of the “warm little pond” as it is now. Thunderclouds, which produce lightning, would have been less common if the Sun had been 30% weaker.

Sun Storms and Life's Origins

Early Earth’s Weak Sun and Freezing Temperatures

Airapetian explained that early Earth was plagued by a weak Sun and freezing temperatures, ruling out the possibility of lightning. Not to rule out the possibility of lightning as a source, but solar particles suddenly seem more likely. These studies imply that the prebiotic chemistry needed for life may have been catalyzed by our active young Sun with more ease and maybe at an earlier time than was previously thought.

The X-ray vision of the NuSTAR Telescope reveals some of the most burning regions in the Sun’s atmosphere. Human eyes cannot see all of the light that our closest star emits, not even on a sunny day. The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array of NASA captures a new image that shows part of this hidden light.

This includes the high-energy X-rays released by the hottest material in the Sun’s atmosphere. While the observatory’s primary focus is on studying celestial bodies. The celestial bodies that are outside of our solar system, such as enormous black holes and dead stars. It has also given astronomers new information on the Sun.

NuSTAR Space Mission:

NASA’s X-ray “NuSTAR” launched on June 13, 2012. The design was just like a Small Explorer mission in collaboration with the Danish Technical University (DTU) and the Italian Space Agency. It was led by Caltech in Pasadena, California, and JPL manages it for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate in Washington (ASI) controls it.

The Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, Columbia University, and DTU all contributed to the construction of the telescope’s optics. Orbital Sciences Corp. in Dulles, Virginia created the spacecraft. The University of California, Berkeley houses the NuSTAR mission operations center, while NASA’s High Energy Astrophysics Science Repository Research Center is home to the program’s official data archive. ASL provides the mission’s ground station and a mirror data archive.  Caltech manages JPL.

NuSTAR Telescope Explores Unseen Light Shows on the Sun!
Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech/JAXA

The Picture of the Sun:

In the composite image above (left), NuSTAR data are shown in blue, and observations from the X-ray Telescope (XRT) on the Hinode mission of the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) are shown in green and red, respectively. The picture of the Sun from the station in Earth of NuSTAR telescope orbit is a mosaic of 25 photographs that scientists got in June 2022. This is due to the fact of the observatory’s extremely narrow field of view and inability to see the full Sun.

NuSTAR telescope detects high-energy X-rays at a few specific spots in the Sun’s atmosphere. On the other hand, Hinode’s XRT and SDO’s AIA see the emitting wavelengths across the entire surface of the Sun.

NuSTAR’s views corona:

The Sun’s outer atmosphere, known as the corona, reaches more than a million degrees, making it at least 100 times hotter than its surface. NuSTAR’s view may help scientists unravel this mystery, which is one of the biggest ones about our nearest star. This confuses the scientists. This is because the Sun’s radiation radiates outward from its center. Compared to fire, the air is 100 times hotter than the flames.


Nanoflares are tiny eruptions in the Sun’s atmosphere. They could be the cause of the corona’s heat. “Flares”  that are large bursts of heat, light, and particles are visible by a variety of solar observatories.

Even though nanoflares are substantially smaller events, both types of flares emit material that is even hotter than the corona’s mean temperature. Nanoflares may occur much more frequently than regular flares, possibly frequently enough to heat the corona as a whole. Regular flares don’t occur frequently enough to maintain the corona at the high temperatures scientists observe.

NuSTAR can detect light from the high-temperature material that is anticipated to be formed when a large number of nanoflares occur close to one another, even though individual nanoflares are too faint to monitor among the Sun’s intense light. This capability enables physicists to study nanoflares’ energy release mechanism and frequency.

The closest encounter with the Sun:

These observations were got during NASA’s Parker Solar Probe’s 12th near approach to the Sun, or perihelion. This is the closest encounter with the Sun in spacecraft history. Scientists use the NuSTAR telescope to make observations during one of Parker’s perihelion crossings. This helps them to link activity in the Sun’s atmosphere that is seen from a distance. Samples of the solar environment were directly collected by the probe.


Published by: Sky Headlines