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Early Universe Galaxies

Webb Reveals Early Universe Galaxies Resembling Pool Noodles and Surfboards

Discoveries in the Early Universe: Insights from the James Webb Space Telescope

The James Webb Space Telescope, a marvel of modern astronomy, has been instrumental in unveiling the mysteries of the early universe. Researchers analyzing its images have uncovered fascinating characteristics of galaxies that existed in the early universe. These findings provide a new understanding of how galaxies formed and evolved billions of years ago.

What is the Early Universe?

The early universe refers to the first moments after the Big Bang, roughly 13.8 billion years ago, up to the formation of the first stars and galaxies. It was a period of extreme heat, density, and rapid expansion, unlike anything we experience today.

Imagine a universe denser than an atomic nucleus, so hot that even fundamental particles couldn’t clump together. This was the Planck epoch, the first trillionth of a second after the Big Bang. As the universe expanded and cooled, the fundamental forces emerged, followed by the formation of protons, neutrons, and electrons.

Galaxies in the Early Universe: A Surprising Shape

The early universe, a topic of endless intrigue, has revealed yet another surprise. The majority of galaxies during this epoch appear to be flat and elongated, resembling everyday objects like surfboards and pool noodles. This observation contrasts starkly with the round shapes, akin to volleyballs or frisbees, that are more common in the nearby, more modern universe.

Lead author Viraj Pandya, a NASA Hubble Fellow at Columbia University, highlights this stark difference. “Roughly 50 to 80% of the galaxies we studied from the early universe seem to adopt this flattened two-dimensional form,” he explains. This revelation is surprising given that such shapes are rare in the universe’s current expanse.

The Cosmic Evolution Early Release Science (CEERS) Survey

The team’s research was anchored in the Cosmic Evolution Early Release Science (CEERS) Survey, a treasure trove of near-infrared images from Webb. This survey allowed the researchers to study galaxies that existed when the universe was between 600 million to 6 billion years old, a critical period in the early universe’s history.

Sample Shapes of Distant Galaxies
Image: Sample Shapes of Distant Galaxies. In the upper-left inset, there is a depiction of a galaxy with a spherical appearance, which is the rarest finding in Webb’s data. Additionally, the inset includes an illustration of a galaxy that initially appears as an edge-on disk but could be more accurately described as elongated. Among the shapes discovered in Webb’s survey, elongated forms have proven to be one of the most prevalent. NASA, ESA, CSA, Steve Finkelstein (UT Austin), Micaela Bagley (UT Austin), Rebecca Larson (UT Austin)

What are the very Early Galaxies?

The very early galaxies, born just a few hundred million years after the Big Bang, were vastly different from the majestic spirals and ellipticals we see today. Imagine tiny clumps of stars, barely more massive than our own Milky Way, shrouded in the dim light of their first generations of suns.

These “baby galaxies” were likely irregular in shape, with clumpy structures and turbulent gas. Unlike their modern counterparts, they wouldn’t have had neat spiral arms or organized disks.

Think of them as the cosmic toddlers of the universe, still figuring out how to grow and evolve. Thanks to powerful telescopes like the James Webb, we’re now starting to glimpse these faint, ancient galaxies, piecing together the story of how the universe’s grand galactic tapestry was woven.

Diverse Galactic Forms: Beyond Surfboards and Pool Noodles

While the surfboard and pool noodle shapes dominate, the early universe also features galaxies resembling frisbees and volleyballs. These spherical galaxies, although compact and less frequent, add to the cosmic diversity. Interestingly, the frisbee-shaped galaxies, comparable in size to their elongated counterparts, become more prevalent as we move closer to the present-day universe.

The Milky Way’s Ancient Past

If we could travel back in time, what would our Milky Way galaxy look like in the early universe? According to Haowen Zhang, a PhD candidate at the University of Arizona and co-author of the study, it’s likely that the Milky Way would resemble a surfboard. This hypothesis is based on new evidence from Webb, coupled with theoretical models that estimate the Milky Way’s mass billions of years ago.

3D Classifications for Distant Galaxies
Image: 3D Classifications for Distant Galaxies. Here are illustrations of far-off galaxies observed by NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope during its CEERS Survey. These galaxies often exhibit distinctive shapes, resembling familiar objects such as pool noodles or surfboards (as seen in the top row). Another prevalent category comprises thin, circular disk-like galaxies that bear a resemblance to frisbees, found in the lower left and center sections. The least common among these detections are galaxies with spherical shapes, akin to volleyballs, depicted in the lower right section. NASA, ESA, CSA, Steve Finkelstein (UT Austin), Micaela Bagley (UT Austin), Rebecca Larson (UT Austin)

Less Massive, Yet Pivotal Precursors

The early universe’s galaxies were significantly less massive than the spirals and ellipticals we see today. They were the precursors to more massive galaxies, like our Milky Way. Kartheik Iyer, a co-author and NASA Hubble Fellow at Columbia University emphasize this point. “In the early universe, galaxies had less time to grow,” he notes, underscoring the importance of identifying and categorizing these early galactic forms.

Webb’s Role: A New Era of Galactic Exploration

The Webb Telescope’s sensitivity, high-resolution imaging capability, and specialization in infrared light were crucial in this study. These features enabled the team to swiftly characterize many CEERS galaxies and model their 3D geometries. Pandya acknowledges that such research wouldn’t have been possible without the foundational work done using the Hubble Space Telescope.

Hubble’s Legacy and Webb’s Advancements

For decades, Hubble has captured images of some of the earliest galaxies, starting with its first “deep field” in 1995. These deep sky surveys led to robust 3D models of distant galaxies, charting their evolution across cosmic time. Now, Webb is expanding this legacy, reaching galaxies beyond Hubble’s grasp and revealing the early universe in unprecedented detail.

A Swell of New Evidence

Webb’s images have been like an ocean swell, bringing new waves of evidence about the early universe. Marc Huertas-Company, a co-author and research scientist at the Institute of Astrophysics on the Canary Islands, points out that Hubble had already shown an excess of elongated galaxies”. Webb’s infrared sensitivity has not only confirmed these findings but also revealed even more distant galaxies with similar shapes in greater detail.

Filling the Knowledge Gaps

Despite these advancements, gaps in our understanding of the early universe remain. A larger sample size from Webb is needed to refine our knowledge of the properties and locations of these distant galaxies. Elizabeth McGrath, an associate professor at Colby College and co-author, emphasizes the need for more in-depth analysis. “These are early results,” she says, highlighting the excitement and potential for future discoveries.

Conclusion: A New Chapter in Cosmic History

The James Webb Space Telescope has opened a new chapter in our understanding of the early universe. Its findings challenge our perceptions of galactic shapes and compositions during the universe’s formative years. As researchers continue to delve into Webb’s treasure trove of data, our comprehension of the cosmos’s past, and thereby its future, will only deepen. This journey into the early universe is not just a quest for knowledge but a voyage into the very origins of galaxies, including our own Milky Way.

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