Eighty moons of Jupiter are yet to be discovered. Fifty-seven of these moons are named by International Astronomical Union (IAU). And the remaining Twenty-three will be detailed in the future.

Ganymede (Moon):

This is the largest moon in the solar system moons. Juno spacecraft also performed close flybys of Ganymede in 2019 and 2021. Juno Cam imager captured Jupiter’s largest moon Ganymede during Juno’s mission on June 7, 2021. The images can also show smaller craters about 25 to 30 miles (40 to 50 km) wide. Experts believe that Ganymede’s volcanic activity forms these creators.

During its 24th orbit of Jupiter, the Juno spacecraft performed a distant flyby of Ganymede on December 25, 2019. With this flyby, Juno was able to capture images of the moon’s polar regions. Juno performed a second flyby at a closer distance of about 1000 kilometers. This flyby also provided a gravity assist to reduce Juno’s orbital period from 53 days to 43 days. This encounter provided additional images of the surface.

Europa (Moon):

Of the four Galilean moons, Europa is the smallest one. Europa is the sixth closest moon to Jupiter. Along with the water ice, this moon may be covered by an ocean of water or slushy ice beneath. Thus, Europa might have twice as much water as Earth. Astrobiologist believes that Europa might be habitable. The Juno orbiter flew by Europa at a distance of 352 km (219 mi) in 2022.

Io (Moon):

Io (moon) is the innermost and the most geologically active object in the Solar system because of its 400 active volcanos. Due to volcanic eruption this moon’s surface contains sulfur. This sulfur paints the surface in various quiet shades of yellow, red, white, black, and green.

During Perijove 25 on February 17, 2020, Juno closely approached Io. Juno spacecraft is to fly by Io with altitudes of 1,500 kilometers on December 30, 2023, and February 3, 2024. Io’s volcanoes are caused by hot silicate magma.

Callisto (Moon):

Galileo Galilei, an Italian astronomer, physicist, and engineer, discovered Callisto in 1610. Covered with impact craters, the surface of Callisto is the oldest and most heavily cratered in the Solar System. Moreover, Callisto is the second-largest moon of Jupiter and the third-largest moon in the Solar System moons. In the 38th Jovian flyby, Juno captured some gorgeous photos of Callisto.

When did the Juno mission end?

The Juno mission was planned to end after completing 37 orbits in February 2018. The spacecraft orbited Jupiter 12 times before the end of July 2018. NASA’s Juno mission was set back to July 2021.

Juno will continue to investigate the giant planet in our solar system until September 2025, or until the spacecraft’s end of life when this will all is over. To avoid a crash with Jupiter’s moons, the spacecraft will perform a controlled deorbit and disintegrate into Jupiter’s atmosphere. However, NASA has said that the spacecraft will never be back on Earth again.


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The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) agreed to work together to demonstrate a nuclear thermal rocket engine in space on Tuesday, which will help the NASA crew in the research mission of Mars. Both parties will agree on the Demonstration Rocket for Agile Cislunar Operations, or DRACO, program. This will help both parties speed up their development and progress.

How is this going to help in Space Mission?

This program will be beneficial in making it safer for astronauts. By using the nuclear thermal rocket, space travel time will be much reduced. And reducing transit time will help NASA’s Mars mission crew. Covering long space trips as well as longer trips demands more energy and robust systems. This program is going to be very vital for the Mars mission crew.

This is going to benefit space travel by increasing science payload capacity. The fission reactor in the nuclear thermal rocket engine creates a very high temperature. The nozzle of the spacecraft then expels this heat energy. Nuclear thermal rockets can be very much more efficient than conventional chemical propulsion.

According to this agreement, the technical development of the nuclear thermal engine that will be connected with DARPA’s experimental spacecraft will be spearheaded by NASA’s Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD). The development of the complete stage and engine, which includes the reactor, is being handled by DARPA in its capacity as the contracting authority.

DARPA will oversee the entire program, including the integration and procurement of rocket systems. Moreover, approvals, scheduling, and security, as well as safety and liability coverage will also be included. It will also oversee the complete assembly and integration of the engine with the spacecraft. NASA and DARPA will work together throughout the development process. In order to assemble the machine in time for the in-space demonstration as early as 2027.

About 50 years ago, NASA’s Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application and Rover projects conducted another thermal rocket engine test.

What do experts say about this agreement?

Bill Nelson:

NASA’s Administrator “Bill Nelson,” said: “NASA will work with our long-term partner, DARPA, to develop and demonstrate advanced nuclear thermal propulsion technology as soon as 2027. With the help of this new technology, astronauts could journey to and from deep space faster than ever – a major capability to prepare for crewed missions to Mars,”. Moreover, he added: “Congratulations to both NASA and DARPA on this exciting investment, as we ignite the future, together.”

Pamela Melroy:

NASA Deputy Administrator Pamela Melroy says about this mission: “NASA has a long history of collaborating with DARPA on projects that enable our respective missions, such as in-space servicing,” Moreover, he said: “Expanding our partnership to nuclear propulsion will help drive forward NASA’s goal to send humans to Mars.”

Stefanie Tompkins:

The director of DARPA “Dr. Stefanie Tompkins” have said about this collaboration: “DARPA and NASA have a long history of fruitful collaboration in advancing technologies for our respective goals, from the Saturn V rocket that took humans to the Moon for the first time to robotic servicing and refueling of satellites,” Moreover he stated: “The space domain is critical to modern commerce, scientific discovery, and national security. The ability to accomplish leap-ahead advances in space technology through the DRACO nuclear thermal rocket program will be essential for more efficiently and quickly transporting material to the Moon and eventually, people to Mars.”

Jim Reuter:

An associate administrator for STMD “Jim Reuter” said: “With this collaboration, we will leverage our expertise gained from many previous space nuclear power and propulsion projects,” Moreover he stated: “Recent aerospace materials and engineering advancements are enabling a new era for space nuclear technology, and this flight demonstration will be a major achievement toward establishing a space transportation capability for an Earth-Moon economy.”

NASA and the DOE!

NASA, the Department of Energy (DOE), and the industry are working on developing an advanced pace nuclear technology. This will help to reduce power consumption in space exploration missions. DOE has already suggested three commercial designs to build nuclear power plants.

NASA and DOE are working on another project to design advanced higher-temperature fission fuels and reactor designs. Which is a vital element of a nuclear thermal propulsion engine. Both parties are still working on developing a longer-range goal for increased engine performance that will not be used for the DRACO engine.


Published by: Sky Headlines

More than 33,000 newborn stars are hidden in the NGC 346 Nebula. Which is the brightest and greatest star-producing region in the galaxy, thanks to Webb’s high-resolution imagery. Astronomers have recently studied NGC 346 with telescope missions, but this is the first time they have observed the dust. The formation of the first stars during “cosmic noon” more than 10 billion years ago is seen in a new image from the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST).

At “cosmic noon,” the James Webb Space Telescope discovers star birth clues for newborn stars. Astronomers have come closer to understanding how early stars evolved during “cosmic noon” than 10 billion years ago.

By combining Webb’s observational capabilities with the gravitational lensing effect, which occurs when extremely massive foreground objects bend light to magnify faint background objects, astronomers were able to make an additional discovery while studying this image. They discovered an unknown and extremely distant galaxy.

Cosmic Noon!

The Cosmic Noon of galaxy formation began roughly three billion years after the Big Bang when the Cosmic Dawn of galaxy formation came to an end and galaxies started to develop at ever-faster rates. A “typical” galaxy at that time was much bigger than it had been during the Cosmic Dawn. 

These galaxies also contained supermassive black holes, which, while consuming neighboring gas, evolved into remarkably bright celestial objects. The majority of the stars and black holes in the universe developed over a few billion years close to Cosmic Noon.

In the NGC 346 nebula, which is the galaxy’s brightest and greatest star-forming region. Scientists have now found more than 33,000 newborn stars all thanks to Webb’s high-resolution imaging. 

NGC 346 Nebula!

The recently released image shows NGC 346, an object that is a part of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), a dwarf galaxy that is only 200,000 light years away from Earth. As is the case in many regions of the present universe, NGC 346 was already well-known as a nursery for young stars.

The Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), a dwarf galaxy near the Milky Way, is where NCG 346 is present. 

It is one of the most active star-forming zones in nearby galaxies, but NGC 346, and is shrouded in mystery. Compared to the Milky Way, the SMC has lower amounts of metals, which are substances heavier than hydrogen or helium. 

Scientists anticipated that there would be very little dust. Moreover, it would be difficult to detect because the majority of the dust grains in space are of metals. But brand-new Webb data shows the exact reverse.

In the upcoming months, scientists hope to discover more. If the Small Magellanic Cloud’s star formation process is comparable to or unlike our own. 

By sucking in surrounding dust these stars are expanding and increasing their size and composition, so it is still unknown how much Webb will hold itself during this star formation process. Ultimately, a rocky planet will be all alone.

What are astronomers’ thoughts on this discovery? 

Astronomers are now relying on JWST to search for the youngest stars and find stars that are not visible in the dust. Astronomers have found several stars that are invisible or misidentified in the optical range by looking for star-forming regions in the infrared.

One of the authors of the report and an astronomer with the Universities Space Research Association Margaret Meixner said; “We have just scratched the surface of this data,”. Moreover, she stated that; “We are going to go back and push it down to [almost] brown dwarf limits to see what we can find.”


Published by: Sky Headlines

Galaxies have evolved significantly in every aspect from the time of early galaxy formation and the present. They have continuously increased their celestial populations while enlarging the cosmic medium with heavy elements, producing multiple generations of stars from molecular gas clouds. James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) discovers that galaxies in the early universe were surprisingly diverse.

According to NASA’s observational study of thousands of galaxies.  NASA found that the cosmos is significantly more diversified and developed than previously believed. The study was based on 850 galaxies that were approximately 11–13 billion years old and were spotted at redshifts of z 3–9.

Hubble Deep Field images VS JWST images!

JWST is valuable to Hubble at revealing structures in distant galaxies for two reasons: First, because of its bigger mirror, it has better light-gathering capabilities and can see farther and more clearly. Second, it can see through dust more clearly because it looks at longer infrared wavelengths than Hubble.

On December 28, 1995, 342 different types of images were merged to produce the Hubble Deep Field image. Astronomers claimed to measure the movement, age, and composition of the galaxies photographed by combining these photos.

They claimed that bluer objects may include young stars or be nearby. Older stars may be present in redder objects, or they may be further away. Even the biggest telescopes have never been able to observe most of the galaxies because they are four billion times fainter than the human eye can see.

But as for JWST discovery, Scientists and researchers are now saying that to determine a galaxy’s age and field more time is needed. As the galaxies even at the high redshifts were already quite developed.

When the images taken by James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) were compared to Hubble Space Telescope photos that depict the same dim, high redshift galaxies, JWST images are slightly clearer.

What do experts say?

A lead author of the new paper and one of the CEERS researchers Jeyhan Kartaltepe also made a statement. He says that even at high redshifts the galaxies were already quite developed. Moreover, she said that the galaxies at high redshifts also had a vast range of structures

Jeyhan Kartaltepe have said that:

“This suggests that we still don’t know when the earliest galactic structures formed,”

Moreover, Jeyhan Kartaltepe concluded:

“We have yet to see the very first galaxies with disks. We will have to study many more galaxies at even higher redshifts to quantify at what point features such as discs were able to form.”

Another researcher who was researching this problem Mr. Jordan Mirocha (Jet Propulsion Laboratory), said:

“There’s either an overabundance of galaxies, or they’re much brighter than our typical models predict,”


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