Humans continue to tackle the technological obstacles of deep space missions, which involve Mars colony too. So, the idea of exploring and establishing colonies on extraterrestrial outposts is being seriously discussed by space agencies and private companies.

However, we need to consider whether we should pursue these endeavors solely because we have the capability to do so. Is venturing into this undoubtedly risky adventure justified when we assess it from economic, legal, and ethical perspectives?

Human Colorization on Mars Colony- A Pathway to Level up the Evolution Process

Mars possesses a significant advantage over the Moon in terms of its abundance and diversity of essential elements. While the Moon lacks many crucial metals and elements required by industrial society, Mars has a wide range of elements in abundance, making it more promising for potential resource extraction and utilization.

On Mars, various hydrologic and volcanic processes have occurred over its geologic history, leading to the consolidation of different elements into local concentrations of high-grade mineral ore. This geological history has drawn optimistic comparisons to Africa’s mineral wealth, suggesting that Mars may have substantial mineral resources. Which would help in developing Mars colony.

In contrast, the Moon has had limited to no history of water or volcanic activity. As a result, its composition primarily consists of rocks with little differentiation into valuable ores or concentrations of essential elements.

Considering the available resources and mineral wealth. Mars colony appears to be a more attractive candidate for potential future human colonization and resource utilization endeavors if we compare it to the Moon.

Now, we will see the robotic mining, and its significance in digging out important elements from Mars Colony.

What is Robotic Mining & How it Could Help in Mars Colony?

According to Professor Serkan Saydam from UNSW Sydney:

“The key to developing a colony on Mars within the next 30 years lies in robotic mining. This technology can extract water and fuel, making it essential for future colonization efforts.”

Professor Saydam believes that if autonomous mining processes become more commercially viable, humans could establish a colony on Mars by the year 2050. The recent successful landing of NASA’s Perseverance rover on Mars has sparked hope for this endeavor.

The primary focus of creating a colony on Mars revolves around finding and utilizing water. Robots will play a crucial role in extracting and processing water before humans set foot on the planet. Water is vital for life support, and it can also be separated into hydrogen, which serves as an energy source.

The proposed process for human colonization on Mars involves first setting up robotic operations to produce water and separate hydrogen. This way, the water and energy will be ready and available when human beings eventually arrive on the red planet.

Advancements in robotics and autonomous systems are crucial to ensure the availability of water and energy for future Mars colonization missions.

The Entrepreneur , Elon Musk, has recently made a claim regarding the colony of Mars. Let’s read in next paragraph what he is telling us!

Mars Will be the City of 1 Million by 2050: Elon Musk Claimed!

Entrepreneur Elon Musk has expressed confidence in the possibility of establishing a city of 1 million people on Mars by 2050. He plans to transport these individuals using 1000 Starships developed by his company, SpaceX, with up to three rocket launches per day.

While Professor Saydam believes achieving this specific goal within the given timeframe may be unrealistic, he acknowledges that the ambition to travel to and potentially Mars colony is what will drive the necessary technological advancements.

According to Professor Saydam:

“The technology and knowledge required for such missions are already available. However, the main challenge lies in maintaining focus and commitment to the project. To further the progress, he asks why similar technologies are not already utilized on Earth, where we still heavily rely on human labor in mining operations.”

One crucial aspect hindering the development is the lack of sufficient demand. Companies would only invest in Mars mission-related products if there is a market for the minerals or resources they can extract from Mars, which can be used for manufacturing and sold.

“At the moment, everything is just a cost and there is no revenue for companies.“

However, that could be starting to change. United Launch Alliance, a joint venture between Lockheed Martin and Boeing who are heavily invested in the rockets used to launch spaceships, has publicly announced they will pay $500 per kilogram for fuel – derived from water – supplied on the moon. That rises to $3000 per kilogram if the fuel is available in a low-earth orbit.

Apart from this, now we will see the civilization of Mars, and the challenges it could lead in the next part of the blog!

Developing a Civilization on Mars:

When NASA plans crewed missions to Mars, they usually envision round trips with brief stopovers on the Red Planet. However, commercial space companies like SpaceX have more ambitious goals, aiming to establish civilizations on Mars.

For extended stays on Mars, the most practical approach involves utilizing resources already present on the planet, rather than relying solely on supplies from Earth. Researchers have identified five essential resources that would be required for Martian settlements in Mars colony: energy, water, oxygen, construction material, and food. Fortunately, the first four resources are potentially abundant on Mars.

Energy needs can be met with a combination of solar power and nuclear-fission reactors. Water can be sourced from ice and hydrated minerals found on Mars. Oxygen can be generated by converting carbon dioxide, which is also present in the Martian atmosphere. Additionally, the soil on Mars can be used to produce bricks for construction materials.

However, when it comes to food, there are no natural sources available on Mars, and it’s challenging to create it from the raw materials on the planet using simple chemical processes. The researchers emphasize that producing food locally on Mars will be the most difficult task, and importing all the required food from Earth won’t be sustainable for establishing a self-sufficient settlement.

Long-term stays on Mars require a strategy that relies on Martian resources for energy, water, oxygen, and construction material. However, the challenge of producing food locally remains a significant obstacle for establishing a self-sustaining colony on the Red Planet.

As we all know that Mars has lower gravity than Earth, so we will highlight the importance of “survival of the fittest” in next paragraph.

Does “Survival of the Fittest” Really Fits Best in Mars Colony?

The concept of “survival of the fittest” is essential in evolution, but on Mars, the environment may not solely determine the traits that make people well-suited for life there. One apparent factor that could lead to differences is height, as Mars has lower gravity than Earth.

Contrary to popular science fiction portrayals of tall and lanky Martians, the actual effect might be the opposite. The conditions on Mars could favor shorter people with denser bones to avoid hazards during childbirth, as weaker skeletons could lead to pelvic fractures during delivery.

Additionally, Mars’ high radiation levels could influence traits like skin color or eyesight over generations of evolution, as has happened on Earth. For example, to cope with the radiation, humans might develop new types of skin pigments or genes that make them more resistant to cancer, leading to potential “green men” in the future.

However, it’s crucial to remember that these ideas are speculative. There is still much we need to learn about how space living, including childbirth and infant survival and development, may impact human evolution on Mars. The process is complex and will require further research and understanding.

mars colony
An image of the surface of Mars taken by the Perseverance Rover in March 2021. Photo: NASA

What Could be the Possible Future Impacts on Mars Colony?

Mars presents a unique opportunity for potential colonization due to several factors. With a mean radius of about 0.53 times that of Earth and 0.38 times the surface gravity, it offers a surface area close to the total land area of our planet, making it a promising destination. These are really valuable information related to Mars colony.

Research conducted by rovers and low-frequency radar on the Mars Express spacecraft. They have suggested the possibility of finding underground and subglacial liquid water. Which would be beneficial for sustaining life and supporting future colonists.

Similar to Earth, we believe that Mars have substantial mineral resources beneath its surface. And it includes recently confirmed evidence of metal ores and other vital minerals. While no practical methods for extracting and refining these resources on Mars have been demonstrated yet. The potential to do so in the future is a significant factor in favor of colonization.

Despite immediate challenges such as a dusty, carbon dioxide-rich atmosphere with a pressure of only 0.09 atm. These promising features have solidified Mars’ status as the ultimate space colonization destination for the near future.

mars colony
An artist’s impression of mining operations on Mars ahead of a potential colony of humans on the red planet.

How Being Extra-Terrestrial on Mars Effects Science?

The idea of going extra-terrestrial and colonizing Mars is gaining momentum with initiatives like the Mars One program.  Which has been operating since 2012 and seems likely to continue due to financial and public support. The successful launch of Falcon Heavy in 2018 demonstrated its capacity to deliver payloads to the Martian surface. Which aligns with the goals of Mars One.

To develop geodynamic scenarios and define relevant parameters for future Mars, efforts are ongoing. And it also include  terraforming such as Mars colony, as well as materials suitable for Mars-oriented applications and environments.

Many believe that from a technological standpoint, colonization of Mars within our lifetime is indeed possible. There is a substantial number of volunteers eager. That will take on the challenge of a one-way journey to the Red Planet. Thousands have applied to Mars One, and around 100 individuals have been preselected.

These developments and the enthusiastic response from potential volunteers indicate many things. Which also include that the concept of colonizing Mars is becoming a tangible reality, at least from a technical perspective. However, it is essential to continue research and planning to address the significant challenges involved in such a monumental endeavor.


NASA’s MAVEN spacecraft project has taken two amazing pictures of Mars using ultraviolet light. This light can show us a lot about the planet’s air and surface.

Maven, a NASA spacecraft, enters orbit over Mars. According to NASA, the Maven spacecraft effectively completed an engine run to reach Martian orbit and start its journey to investigate the atmosphere of the Red Planet. The Martian ionosphere contains a thin film of metal ions as a consequence of entering interplanetary dust striking the upper atmosphere, and MAVEN delivered its inaugural direct observations of this layer.

MAVEN Spacecraft’s Mission

Originally an aspect of NASA’s now-cancelled Mars Scout Programme, the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) expedition was chosen to investigate the planet’s environment and aurora and how they are influenced by the Sun and the solar winds.
MAVEN spacecraft discovered that the Sun is the main cause of Mars’ atmosphere depletion. The solar wind is the aggregate name for the stream of hot, extremely energetic particles that the Sun releases.

MAVEN spacecraft’s tool for taking these pictures is the Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph (IUVS). It took these pictures in 2022 and 2023 when Mars was at different points in its path around the Sun.

UV Images by MAVEN Spacecarft

The IUVS tool takes pictures using light that we can’t usually see. To help us see it, the pictures show different light brightness levels as red, green, and blue. Using these colors, the air’s ozone looks purple, and clouds look white or blue. The surface can look tan or green, depending on the picture.

UV Images by MAVEN Spacecarft

The first picture by MAVEN spacecraft was taken in July 2022, when Mars was close to the Sun. It was summer in the southern part of Mars. In the picture, you can see a large area called the Argyre Basin, filled with a light pink haze. You can also see the white southern polar ice cap. It’s smaller because it’s summer and warmer. More water vapor is in the air because of the heat and dust storms. This is why Mars loses more hydrogen during this time.

MAVEN spacecraft took second picture which shows the northern part of Mars in January 2023. This was when Mars was farthest from the Sun. Many white clouds are near the north pole because the seasons change quickly. In this picture, the cold winter nights have caused more ozone to form. Then, the ozone goes away in the spring because of reactions with water vapor.

orbit 18009

MAVEN Spacecraft Project

The Pentagon’s Project termed as Maven spacecraft uses equipment algorithmic learning to sift through vast amounts of intelligence, spying, and reconnaissance information, including autonomous footage, document, hard drives for computer systems, thumb drives, and more, that have been gathered by the department and intelligence organisations for use operationally by the services.

Insights of MAVEN Spacecarft on Mars

MAVEN spacecraft was sent to space in November 2013 and started orbiting Mars in September 2014. The mission aims to study Mars’ upper atmosphere and how it interacts with the Sun and solar wind. This helps scientists learn more about how Mars’ atmosphere is escaping into space. Knowing this helps us learn about Mars’ past air, climate, and water and if it could have supported life. The MAVEN team is preparing for September 2024, when the probe will have been on Mars for ten years.

The person in charge of MAVEN works at the University of California, Berkeley. NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Maryland runs the project. Lockheed Martin Space made the spacecraft and managed the mission. In Southern California, NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory assists with tracking the spacecraft and the Deep Space Network. The Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics at the University of Colorado Boulder manages the science activities and talks to the public.

Olympus Mons located on the Red Planet and is the largest volcano in our solar system, which looms high above the Martian plains.  This marvel of the solar system is capturing the imagination of scientists and space enthusiasts alike.  It’s a volcano so colossal that it makes the tallest mountain on Earth look like a mere foothill in comparison. 

Before we begin, let’s dig into,

What is Olympus Mon?

When we think of volcanoes, we often picture them here on Earth, but did you know that the tallest volcano in the solar system is located on Mars? Olympus Mons, the tallest volcano in the solar system, is a fascinating natural wonder that is not located on Earth, but on Mars. Named after the tallest mountain in Greece, Olympus Mons is a shield volcano that has captured the attention of scientists and space enthusiasts alike.

Olympus Mons volcano
(Image credit: Getty Images)

“The fact that Olympus Mons is so large is perhaps not that surprising,” said Francis Nimmo, a planetary scientist at the University of California Santa Cruz, “gravity is lower on Mars than on Earth, so the volcanoes can grow bigger before the crust supporting them fails. But the devil is in the details.”

Now you might be wondering,

What makes Olympus Mons unique compared to other volcanoes, and what are its size and shape?

Olympus Mons’ formation and size make it a fascinating and unique natural wonder that continues to captivate the imagination of scientists and space enthusiasts alike. Olympus Mons is a unique shield volcano in its formation and size. Like many other volcanoes, it was formed by lava flows, but its massive size sets it apart. Standing at a staggering height of 24 kilometers and measuring over 550 kilometers across, Olympus Mons is more than two and a half times the height of Mount Everest and nearly the size of the state of Arizona.

Black outline of Arizona
(Image credit: NASA)

What makes Olympus Mons stand out as a shield volcano is its shape. Lava slowly flows out of the ground to form shield volcanoes, which are low and squat. This type of volcano has an average slope of only 5%, making it much less steep than other types of volcanoes. Olympus Mons’ height is therefore even more impressive when you consider that it was formed by relatively gentle lava flows over time.

You also might be wondering,

Where is it located on Mars?

Olympus Mons is situated in the northern section of the Tharsis Highlands, a vast volcanic plateau on Mars that covers an area roughly equivalent to the size of North America. The Tharsis region is characterized by a cluster of massive shield volcanoes, with the tallest volcano in the solar system being the most prominent of them all.

Tharsis Bulge on Mars
Four massive volcanoes make up the Tharsis Bulge on Mars. Credit: ESA/DLR/FU Berlin/Justin Cowart

Due to the thin atmosphere on Mars, which has a surface pressure of less than 1% of Earth’s, the peak of Olympus Mons rises above the planet’s atmospheric boundary and appears to float above the surface. If one were to stand at the summit of the volcano, one would be standing at an altitude of about 22 kilometers (14 miles) above the average Martian surface, which is almost three times the height at which commercial airliners fly on Earth.

The location of Olympus Mons is not only notable for its height but also for its formation. The volcano can exist on Mars because of the planet’s unique geological and environmental conditions. Unlike Earth, Mars has no plate tectonics, which means there are no moving plates that can cause volcanic activity. Additionally, Mars has a lower gravity compared to Earth, allowing volcanoes to grow much larger before their crustal support fails. All these factors contributed to the formation of Olympus Mons, making it the largest volcano in the solar system, towering over Earth’s Mauna Loa in both height and width.

One of the common things asked about it is,

What is the estimated age of Olympus Mons, and why is it considered a potentially Active Volcano?


Scientists consider Olympus Mons a young and active volcano because they estimate its age to be only a few million years.  To put this in perspective, Earth’s largest volcano, Mauna Loa in Hawaii, is over half a million years old. The relatively young age of Olympus Mons suggests that it is still active and could erupt again.

One reason why Olympus Mons could continue to grow even larger is due to the unique geological conditions on Mars. Unlike Earth, Mars lacks tectonic plates, which means that when a hot spot forms and lava begins to flow to the surface, the hot spot doesn’t move, and the lava continues to pour out in one location. This results in a shield volcano that can grow to immense sizes over time. As fresh lava flows to the surface and cools, it adds to the existing mountain, potentially increasing its size.

The possibility of future eruptions on Olympus Mons is a topic of interest to scientists, who continue to study the volcano and monitor any signs of activity. If the volcano were to erupt again, it could provide valuable insights into the geological processes that shape Mars and help us better understand the history and potential future of the Red Planet.

Now, we should also know,

What is the visibility of Olympus Mons from Space?

The enormous size of Olympus Mons makes it easily visible from space. From a distance, the volcano looks like a large, circular, slightly elevated plateau with a depression in the center. Mars is prone to severe dust storms, which can obscure the planet’s surface. However, the height of Olympus Mons allows its peak to protrude above the dust layer. Thus, it remains visible from space.

If someone is standing on the summit of Olympus Mons, it would feel like being in space. This is due to the low atmospheric pressure on Mars. As the air pressure at the summit is only about 1% of the atmospheric pressure at the surface of Mars. As a result, technically, someone standing on the summit would be reaching into space. The atmospheric pressure is so low that it almost feels like a vacuum.

Lastly, we will be concluding this with,

Few Ending Words:

Olympus Mons is a fascinating and awe-inspiring natural wonder that reminds us of the vast possibilities of the universe.

Advancements in science and technology are offering exciting opportunities to uncover more great places in space. As we continue to explore our solar system, scientists and astronomers are eager to discover the wonders of the cosmos. Upcoming missions to Mars, as well as the use of advanced telescopes, are contributing to these efforts.


Published by: Sky Headlines