Our solar system is the largest object in the universe, but the thought of how big is the solar system often causes us chills. But don’t worry, we have got you covered. Let’s have a look over some of the amazing facts about our solar system, and learn valuable content!

What is the Radius & Diameter of the Sun?

The sun is almost a perfect sphere. Its size is very similar at the equator and the poles, differing by only 6.2 miles (10 km). The sun’s average radius measures 432,450 miles (696,000 kilometers), which gives it a diameter of around 864,938 miles (1.392 million km). According to NASA, you could fit 109 Earths across the sun’s surface. The sun’s circumference is roughly 2,715,396 miles (4,370,006 km).

While it’s the largest object around, the sun appears quite ordinary next to other stars. For instance, Betelgeuse, a red giant, surpasses the sun significantly, being roughly 700 times larger and approximately 14,000 times brighter.

NASA says:

“We have found stars that are 100 times bigger in diameter than our sun. Truly those stars are enormous. We have also seen stars that are just a tenth the size of our sun.”

What is the Size of the Solar System in Light Years?

  • The Moon is located about 1.3 light-seconds away from Earth.
  • Earth sits approximately 8 light-minutes (around 92 million miles) from the Sun. This indicates that sunlight takes 8 minutes to travel to us.
  • Jupiter’s distance from Earth is roughly 35 light minutes. So, if you were to shine a light from Earth, it would take about 30 minutes for the light to reach Jupiter.
  • Pluto isn’t at the outermost boundary of our solar system. Beyond Pluto lies the Kuiper Belt, and farther out is the Oort Cloud. The Oort Cloud forms a round layer of icy objects encircling our entire solar system.
  • If you could travel at the speed of light, it would take you approximately 1.87 years to reach the edge of the Oort Cloud. This implies that our solar system spans about 4 light-years from one end of the Oort Cloud to the other.

How the Planets are Aligned in a Specific Way?

One of the coolest things to watch in the night sky is when two or more planets get really close to each other. Astronomers call this a “conjunction.” Sometimes, when we look at the way planets move around, we also see something called an “alignment.” It’s like the planets are lined up in a row. In the picture on the left, you can see this happening with Mercury (M), Venus (V), and Earth (E).

how big is the solar system
A planetary alignment is only what we perceive from Earth and not a physical line-up of planets in our solar system. Withan Tor/Shutterstock

When we look from Earth, Venus and Mercury can seem super close to the sun. If they match up perfectly, they might even look like black dots moving across the sun’s face at the same time. This is called a “transit.”

Now, let’s talk about how often these cool planet line-ups happen. Earth takes about 365 days to go all the way around the sun. Mercury takes 88 days, and Venus takes 224 days to do the same thing. The time between these line-up events needs each planet to finish a whole number of trips around the sun before they get back into the same pattern you see in the picture.

For a simpler example, let’s imagine that Mercury takes a quarter of a year (like three months) to go around the sun, and Venus takes two-thirds of a year (a bit more than half a year) to finish its trip around the sun.

How Big is the Solar System Compared to the Sun?

The sun is at the center of the solar system, and it’s the biggest thing around. It holds almost all the mass in the solar system, about 99.8%. It’s huge, about 109 times wider than Earth. So, if you are wondering how big is the sun, then let’s give you an idea. give you an idea.

how big is the solar system
One of the first images taken by the ESA/NASA Solar Orbiter during its first close pass at the sun in 2020. (Image credit: Solar Orbiter/EUI Team/ ESA & NASA; CSL, IAS, MPS, PMOD/WRC, ROB, UCL/MSSL)

The sun’s surface is really hot, about 10,000 degrees Fahrenheit (5,500 degrees Celsius). But deep inside, at the core, things get much hotter – over 27 million degrees Fahrenheit (15 million degrees Celsius) – because of nuclear reactions. Just to match the sun’s energy, you’d need to explode 100 billion tons of dynamite every single second. That’s a lot of power, as NASA tells us.

Our sun is just one of more than 100 billion stars in the Milky Way galaxy. It’s about 25,000 light-years away from the center of the galaxy, and it takes about 250 million years to complete one trip around that center. The sun is still young compared to some stars. Scientists call it a “Population I” star, which means it has a good amount of heavy elements. There are older stars in the “Population II,” and there might have been even older ones called “Population III,” although we haven’t found any of those yet.

How Did we Come to Our Solar System Name?

We call our group of planets the “solar system” because we use the word “solar” to talk about things connected to our star. This comes from the Latin word for the Sun, “Solis”. Our group of planets is found in one of the outer curls of the Milky Way galaxy.

How big is the solar system in miles?

If we consider the Oort Cloud as a sort of rough edge, our solar system’s size reaches about 2 light years. To give you an idea, that’s nearly 12 trillion miles!

How big is solar system in light-years?

Imagine if you could move as fast as light. It would take you roughly 1.87 years to get to the outer edge of the Oort Cloud. This also means that our entire solar system spans around 4 light-years from one end of the Oort Cloud to the other.

Is 1 hour in space 7 years on Earth?

The tale goes like this: spending 1 hour on that specific planet equals 7 years out in space. Time dilation is a true concept, but thinking it could be that extreme in any normal situation is quite unrealistic. In reality, it’s just a tiny fraction of a second, not several years.

How big is the Universe solar system?

The part of the Universe we can see spans 93 billion light-years. But if we look at our own galaxy, the Milky Way, it’s much smaller, only about 100,000 light-years across. Exploring just our galaxy would take countless lifetimes, not to mention the whole Universe. Another really old structure is a giant group of galaxies called the Hyperion Supercluster.

Many people think that the model of the timeline of the Big Bang paves its way to explain a lot. And that is true! For instance, it tells us about the universe’s history and development. Moreover, the universe began as an incredibly hot and dense point.  Besides telling you some crisp information, it also tells you that the universe started around 13.7 billion years ago.

 But, here arise a question how did the universe change from being only a few millimeters in size to the immense expanse that we see today?

To make it easier to understand. Let’s break down the journey of this timeline to the present into some simple steps:

Timeline of the Big Bang – Is it a Space Exploration?

You will be very surprised to know that the Big Bang wasn’t a space explosion. Researchers clarify that it signaled the birth of space across the entire universe. As per the Big Bang theory, the universe came to exist as an incredibly hot and dense point in space.

Timeline of the Big Bang
An illustration of the timeline of the universe following the big bang. (Image credit: NASA/WMAP Science Team)

Furthermore, what happened before this moment remains unclear to cosmologists. However, using advanced space missions, ground-based telescopes, and complex calculations. Scientists have been working diligently to paint a clearer picture of the universe’s initial stages and how it formed.

Besides this, a significant part of this effort comes from studying the cosmic microwave background. This phenomenon tells us that the lingering glow of light and radiation that originates after the Big Bang. Spread throughout the universe, this can be detected by microwave instruments too. This phenomenon allows scientists to gather pieces of information about the universe’s early history, and how did the big bang happen!

The Inflation Stage – Where the Universe Timelines Underwent an Exponential Expansion!

During the universe’s early days, when it was extremely young. Around a hundredth of a billionth of a trillionth of a trillionth of a second (a really tiny fraction!). The universe went through an extraordinary phase of rapid growth. This occurrence, known as inflation, saw the universe undergo exponential expansion. Throughout this time, the universe doubled in size at least 90 times.

David Spergel is a theoretical astrophysicist at Princeton University in Princeton, N.J.. He told that after inflation, the universe continued to grow, but at a slower rate.

“The universe was expanding, and as it expanded, it got cooler and less dense.”

The Formation of Different Compounds in the Timeline of the Big Bang

In the first three minutes after the universe came into existence. Thus, the lightweight chemical elements started to form. As the universe kept expanding, the dropping temperatures led to collisions between protons and neutrons. Which results in the creation of deuterium. It is an isotope of hydrogen. A significant portion of this deuterium then combined to produce helium.

Universe Origins
WMAP has produced a new, more detailed picture of the infant universe. Colors indicate “warmer” (red) and “cooler” (blue) spots. (Image credit: NASA/WMAP Science Team)

The Phase of “Recombination”:

Around 380,000 years after the Big Bang, matter had cooled down enough for electrons to join with nuclei, creating neutral atoms. This phase is called “recombination.” The free electrons come together and made the universe become see-through. The light that was released during this period still exists today. And it is detectable radiation known as the cosmic microwave background.

After recombination, there was a dark period before stars and other bright objects appeared.

Big Bang Theory Timeline – The Dark Era!

About 400 million years after the Big Bang, the universe started to move out of the dark period. This crucial phase in the universe’s development is known as the age of re-ionization.

While it was initially thought to have taken over half a billion years, you will be surprised to know about the recent observations. They have led scientists to consider that re-ionization might have happened faster than previously believed.

During this timeline of the Big Bang, the clusters of gas came together to form the very first stars and galaxies. Besides this, the ultraviolet light emitted from these energetic events played a part in spreading out. It has cleared away most of the nearby neutral hydrogen gas.

Cosmic Microwave Background Theory – Significant Events of Universe Timeline

Astronomers are tirelessly exploring the vast reaches of the universe to find the most distant and ancient galaxies. This pursuit helps them understand how the early universe was like. Furthermore, by studying the cosmic microwave background, astronomers can effectively trace back and piece together the events that happened before.

Timeline of the Big Bang
An image taken BY NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope, showing a cluster of galaxies residing 10 billion light-years away. (Image credit: NASA/ESA/University of Florida, Gainsville/University of Missouri-Kansas City/UC Davis)

For instance, many insights gained from earlier missions like WMAP and the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE). Both launched in 1989, as well as ongoing missions like the Hubble Space Telescope, which began its mission in 1990. They all work together to contribute to the scientific effort of solving long-standing mysteries.

The Formation of “Milky Way” in the Big Bang Timeline:

Scientists believe that our solar system formed a little more than 9 billion years after the Big Bang. Which makes it roughly 4.6 billion years old. Current calculations indicate that the sun is just one of an astonishing 100 billion stars that exist in our Milky Way galaxy. It follows a path around 25,000 light-years away from the central core of the galaxy.

NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope
An infrared view of a developing star taken by NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope. It illustrates what our solar system might have looked like billions of years ago. (Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/AURA)

Different Galaxies & Seeing of the Distant Stars:

During the 1960s and 1970s, astronomers started considering that there could be more mass in the universe than what we can see. One of these astronomers was Vera Rubin, who worked at the Carnegie Institution of Washington. She looked at how fast stars were moving at different places within galaxies.

According to basic physics by Newton, stars at the edges of a galaxy should move slower compared to stars closer to the center. However, Rubin noticed something different. She discovered that there was no change in the speeds of stars as you moved farther out from the center. In fact, she found that all stars in a galaxy appeared to be moving around the center at roughly the same speed.

Big Bang and the Universe's Origins
An illustration of Earth surrounded by filaments of dark matter called “hairs”. (Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech)


In the 1920s, an astronomer named Edwin Hubble made a groundbreaking discovery about the universe. Using a newly constructed telescope at the Mount Wilson Observatory in Los Angeles. Hubble revealed something transformative: the universe isn’t standing still; it’s actually getting bigger.

Fast forward to 1998, and the famous Hubble Space Telescope, named after that same pioneering astronomer. He used on studying distant exploding stars known as supernovas. Its findings brought to light a remarkable insight: a significant time in the past saw the universe expanding at a slower rate than it is today. This discovery was important because it went against earlier beliefs. Where it is defined that the gravitational pull of matter in the universe would slow down its expansion or possibly even cause it to contract.

What is the timeline of the Big Bang theory?

  • The Big Bang. 10-43 seconds.
  • The Universe Takes Shape. 10-6 seconds.
  • Formation of Basic Elements. 3 seconds.
  • The Radiation Era. 10,000 years.
  • Beginning the Era of Matter Domination. 300,000 years.
  • Birth of Stars and Galaxies. 300 million years.
  • Birth of the Sun. 5 Billion Years Before the Present (BP)
  • Earliest Life.

What are two main eras in Big Bang timeline?

Since the Big Bang, the universe has gone through several eras distinguished by the behavior of the universe’s fundamental forces and particles.

  1. Planck Era.
  2. Grand Unification Era.
  3. Electroweak Era.
  4. Elementary Particle Era.
  5. Era of Nucleosynthesis.
  6. Era of Atoms.

What are the 7 steps of the Big Bang theory?

#1 – Inflation & the Beginning

#2 – A Hot Mess & a Jumble of Particles

#3 – Cooling Cosmos & Quarks> Protons + Neutrons

#4 – Dark, Hot, and Foggy Universe (EP)

#5 – Let There Be Light & Hydrogen + Helium

#6 – Giant Clouds, Galaxies, & Stars (by He & H)

#7 – Heavy Elements In/Become Stars

What are the 5 theories of the origin of the universe?

Throughout history, people have come up with different ideas to explain things they didn’t understand. These ideas ranged from thinking the Earth was flat to believing everything revolved around us, and then realizing the Sun was at the center. Later, we learned about the Big Bang and an even faster expansion called the Inflationary Big Bang. These ideas were based on what people knew at the time. Even though they might not be completely right, we shouldn’t just call them wrong. It’s more accurate to say they were a bit imperfect because they matched what people knew back then, but they might not explain everything completely.

Dark Matter & Dark Energy!

Even as our understanding of how the universe formed and grew has expanded greatly, there are still several unanswered questions that await solutions. One of the most prominent mysteries involves the puzzling realms of dark matter and dark energy. However, cosmologists continue their efforts to explore the complexities of the universe, aiming for a more complete understanding of where it came from.

The Contribution of JWST:

A significant stride in this ongoing journey was the launch of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) in 2021. This advanced telescope has the goal of advancing the search to uncover the elusive properties of dark matter. Additionally, its infrared instruments did poise to look both far into the distant past and forward through the unfolding story of the universe’s evolution. This could potentially shed light on crucial aspects of how the universe originated and developed.

The James Webb Space Images Black Hole is the talk of the town for some time. This is keep impressing us once more by making an incredible discovery. It has seen a supermassive black hole that’s actively doing its thing. Moreover, it’s even far away in the universe than anything we’ve seen before.

Are you finding this discovery interesting? So, Let’s keep hovering to know more about the James Webb Telescope, and its images of Black Holes.

What is CEERS 1019? Let’s have an interesting insight!

The James Webb Telescope images of black hole are surprising many humans out there. This black hole lives in a really old galaxy,  CEERS 1019. This galaxy is thought to have formed just 570 million years after the big explosion (the big bang). Which is why, it is more than 13 billion years old. What got scientists curious was that the black hole at the center of this galaxy is way smaller than they expected.

James Webb Images Black Hole
Stare deeply at this vast landscape. It was stitched together from multiple images captured by the James Webb Space Telescope in near-infrared light – and it is practically pulsing with activity. To the right of center is a clump of bright white spiral galaxies that seem to be twisting into one another. Threaded throughout the scene are light pink spirals that look like pinwheels twirling in the wind. The bright foreground stars, set off in blue, announce themselves with Webb’s prominent eight-pointed diffraction spikes. Don’t miss an unconventional sight: In the bottom row, find the square second from far right. At its right edge, a misshapen blue galaxy is outfitted in blue-and-pink sparkling star clusters.
Credits: NASA, ESA, CSA, Steve Finkelstein (UT Austin), Micaela Bagley (UT Austin), Rebecca Larson (UT Austin)

According to a NASA news release:

“This black hole clocks in at about 9 million solar masses.”

A solar mass is a unit equivalent to the mass of the sun in our home solar system. Which is about 333,000 times larger than the Earth.


“That is far less than other black holes that also existed in the early universe and were detected by other telescopes. Those behemoths typically contain more than 1 billion times the mass of the Sun – and they are easier to detect because they are much brighter.”

What is Intriguing the James Webb Images Black Hole & Its Details the Most?

The ability to bring such a dim, distant black hole into focus is a key feature of the Webb telescope. Which uses highly sensitive instruments to detect otherwise invisible light.

Rebecca Larson, says:

“Looking at this distant object with this telescope is a lot like looking at data from black holes that exist in galaxies near our own.”

She mentioned that she got her doctorate from the University of Texas at Austin this year. Larson, who led this cool discovery, now works as a researcher at the School of Physics and Astronomy at the Rochester Institute of Technology.

James Webb Images Black Hole
This graphic shows detections of the most distant active supermassive black holes currently known in the universe. They were identified by a range of telescopes, both in space and on the ground. Three were recently identified by in the James Webb Space Telescope’s Cosmic Evolution Early Release Science (CEERS) Survey.
Credits: NASA, ESA, CSA, Leah Hustak (STScI)

The Birth of Black Holes After 1 Billion Years of Big Bang!

The scientists didn’t just find this really interesting black hole precisely, but they also stumbled upon two more nearby. These two new black holes seem to have formed about 1 billion years after the big bang. Compared to other black holes from back then, these were not that heavy.

Moreover, the James Webb Images black hole tells a lot about their formations. Webb’s survey called CEERS, which looked at how things in the universe changed over time. It has been fund eleven new galaxies. This survey was also led by the University of Texas at Austin.

Why the Center of CEER 1019 is So Small?

What’s confusing for scientists is that the black hole at the center of CEER 1019 is quite small. This is puzzling because during the early days of the universe, when things were just starting, usually. This is the time black holes formed.

The galaxy CEER 1019 is also interesting in other ways. Instead of looking like a flat round disk, it seems to have three bright spots in a row. This is different from most other galaxies we know about.

CEERS team members are passing a statement on these black holes. For instance, Jeyhan Kartaltepe of the Rochester Institute of Technology in New York, says:

“We’re not used to seeing so much structure in images at these distances. A galaxy merger could be partly responsible for fueling the activity in this galaxy’s black hole, and that could also lead to increased star formation.”

Baby Black Holes: James Webb Images Black Hole Deep Analysis:

In the CEERS spectra (which is like a special kind of light), a few galaxies stood out because they might have baby black holes. Which is why these are tiny versions of the big ones. These galaxies were different from the usual ones because the light they gave off wasn’t just one color for hydrogen.

Instead, the color looked fuzzy or spread out, like a bunch of different colors mixed. This happened because some of the light waves got squished together as gas clouds. And it got done around these galaxies sped toward the telescope (kind of like when a siren sounds higher as an ambulance gets closer). And other waves got stretched out as the clouds moved away. Kocevski and the other scientists realized that only black holes could cause this kind of movement in hydrogen.

Black Hole 13 Billion Year Journey
-Samuel Velasco/Quanta Magazine

Kocevski said:

“The only way to see the broad component of the gas orbiting the black hole is if you’re looking right down the barrel of the galaxy and right into the black hole.”

Has the James Webb telescope taken any pictures of black holes?

The Webb telescope found a really big black hole that came from more than 13 billion years ago. They made a big picture by putting together different pictures taken by the Webb Space Telescope using a special kind of light called near-infrared light.

Can the James Webb telescope see a black hole?

Webb is the first telescope that can take pictures of faraway and faint black holes like this. It’s quickly giving us information that agrees with what scientists have guessed in their theories about how things work. Scientists have known about smaller black holes from a long time ago when the universe was just starting.

Are there any actual photos of a black hole?

The Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration, abbreviated as EHT, constitutes a worldwide array of telescopes that successfully obtained the initial photograph of a black hole. Over 200 researchers dedicated over a decade to this endeavor.

What is the nearest black hole to Earth?

The closest identified black hole is Gaia BH1, uncovered by a team headed by Kareem El-Badry in September 2022. Gaia BH1 resides at a distance of 1,560 light-years from Earth, positioned within the constellation Ophiuchus.

Are the images on the James Webb telescope real?

The James Webb Space Telescope delivered astounding images of the universe. But what are we looking at, exactly? It may go without saying, but these aren’t photographs. They are data visualizations!

Why is it impossible to view a black hole through a telescope?

These black holes are so far away that no normal telescope would ever be powerful enough to see them. You would need a telescope the size of the Earth—but scientists figured out that they could piece together images taken simultaneously from telescopes situated all around the Earth instead.

Has NASA seen a black hole?

The black hole is streaking too fast to take time for a snack. Nothing like it has ever been seen before, but it was captured accidentally by NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope.

What did we recently discover in space black hole?

An ultra-massive black hole, understood to be one of the largest ever detected, has been discovered by astronomers using a new technique. The findings, published by the Royal Astronomical Society, show that the black hole is more than 30 billion times the mass of the sun – a scale rarely seen by astronomers.

James Webb Images Black Hole – Let’s Know a Formal Background About This Telescope!

The Webb Telescope was created through a team effort between NASA, the ESA, and the Canadian Space Agency. It’s designed to explore the farthest parts of space and discover amazing things about the really old universe. But it also looks at interesting planets in our galaxy, even the ones in our solar system.

Want to know some astounding information about black hole ‘switches on’ and relevant events? If yes, then you’re absolutely in the right place. Here’s given an amazing piece of information to you;

What was the J221951 ‘black hole switches on’ incident?

One of the brightest transient events in the universe occurs when a giant black hole switches on and devours surrounding matter, resulting in a spectacular “switching on” phenomenon. J221951, driven by such a voracious black hole, has been identified as one of the most luminous transients ever observed. Although located in the center of a previously known galaxy where a giant black hole would typically reside, scientists remain uncertain about the cause of the temporary event in J221951.

Valuable insights on the potential of Black holes switches on

Astronomer Matt Nicholl from the University of Belfast stated that recent years have provided significant insights into the capabilities of hungry black holes. Instances like stars being torn apart and black holes accumulating matter with varying degrees of brightness have been observed. However, J221951 has caught astronomers off guard with its astonishing display.

The exact nature of the matter being devoured by the supermassive hungry black hole, located approximately 10 billion light-years away, remains unknown. However, it is speculated that J221951 may result from a star venturing too close to the black hole and being violently ripped apart by the immense gravitational forces, a process known as “spaghettification.”

Is Total Disruption Event may be a Justification for J221951?

During such a tidal disruption event (TDE), fragments of the destroyed star would fall onto the black hole’s surface. At the same time, other matter would be drawn into the hungry black hole’s poles and expelled at nearly the speed of light, generating intense electromagnetic radiation.

The extraordinary brightness and short duration of J221951 could be attributed to more than one mechanism associated with the supermassive hungry black hole. One possibility is the spaghettification of an unfortunate star, while another hypothesis involves the transition of an inactive galactic core to an active state.

Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are intensely bright regions at the centers of galaxies, outshining all other stars in the observable universe. They are commonly associated with large hungry black holes.

Nicholl explained.

“Continued monitoring of J221951 to determine the amount of energy being released could aid in discerning whether this event is caused by a rapidly spinning black hole tearing apart a star or a novel type of AGN activation” 


What were the contrasts in both the incidents, J221951 and Kilonovas?

Observing the dramatic “switching on” event at the galaxy’s core, the team compared J221951 to kilonovas—temporary occurrences resulting from the merger of two neutron stars or a neutron star and a hungry black hole. Kilonovas emit bursts of radiant electromagnetic energy and initially appear blue, gradually transitioning to red over several days. However, unlike a kilonova, J221951 remained blue and did not rapidly fade. Follow-up observations using space-based telescopes like the Hubble Space Telescope and ground-based observatories like the Very Large Telescope (VLT) in Chile’s Atacama Desert provided crucial insights into this transient event.

Paul Kuin, a researcher at the Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, and a team member, emphasized:

“The most significant finding was when Hubble’s ultraviolet spectrum ruled out a galaxy as the source. This highlights the importance of maintaining UV spectrographs in space for future observations,” 

Given the 10 billion light-year distance of a black hole switches on, the team recognized J221951 as one of the brightest events ever witnessed. They are now focused on unraveling the underlying cause of this extraordinary event.

Oates said:

“In the future, we will obtain essential clues to differentiate between the tidal disruption event and active galactic nuclei scenarios,” 

“For instance, if an AGN causes J221951, we might expect it to cease fading and brighten again. Conversely, if tidal disturbances caused J221951, we anticipate a continuous fading process.”

Over the coming months to years, close monitoring of J221951 will be necessary to understand its behavior during nighttime observations.

Astronomers have seen meteor-like streaks, the shooting stars on the sun’s surface that have never been seen before. However, it would help if you didn’t try to catch these falling stars.

What was the scientist’s perspective on the discovery of shooting stars?

“If humans were aliens who could live on the sun’s surface, we would always get to see beautiful shooting stars, but we’d have to watch out for our heads!”

In a release, Patrick Antolin, a solar physicist at Northumbria University in London and the study’s lead author said, “We’ve found something new.”

How these stars can be compared with Earthly meteors?

These solar shooting stars are very different from those we see over Earth: pieces of space dust, rock, or minor asteroids that fly into the atmosphere at high speeds and burn up, making lines of light. Solar shooting stars are vast clumps of plasma that fall to the Sun’s surface at very high rates.

Due to Earth’s thick atmosphere, most meteors don’t reach the surface. However, the Sun’s atmosphere called the corona, is much thinner, so these clumps don’t get entirely stripped as they fall. So, solar shooting stars could make it to our star’s surface without getting broken.

What is the Solar Orbiter’s role in seeing these stars?

This is the first time that these hits by shooting stars have been seen. The European Space Agency’s Solar Orbiter satellite was used to make this discovery. The results show that this process can cause a short but intense brightening, a rush of material from the star, and shock waves that heat the gas in the corona above the impacts.

Scientists think this could help explain why the Sun’s top atmosphere, called the corona, is much hotter than the layers below it, even though solar models say the sun should get more desirable as you get closer to its center.

Enigma of shooting stars and coronal rains

Solar Orbiter saw the solar shooting stars while looking at coronal rain, a spectacular plasma fireworks show made of gas. The temperatures for this were observed up to 2 million degrees Fahrenheit.

A diagram with red lines showing the trajectory of solar rain as it falls towards the surface of the sun with Earth shown to scale.
(Image credit: Patrick Antolin. Background image: ESA/Solar Orbiter EUI/HRI)

Instead of water, coronal rains are made of super-dense clumps of solar plasma that form when local temperature drops cause solar plasma to gather together. When these lumps get as big as 155 miles (250 kilometers), they fall as a fiery rain to the photosphere, the more excellent sun surface, at speeds of up to 220,000 miles per hour (100 kilometers per second).

Solar Orbiter saw these coronal rains only 30 million miles (49 million kilometers) from the Sun. This is closer than Mercury’s orbit, the closest planet to the Sun. With its high-resolution cameras and precise remote-sensing devices, the probe saw that the coronal rains were heating gas to about a million degrees and compressing it. This only happened for a few minutes, due to the falling clumps.

Ablation and bright tails in shooting stars

On Earth, shooting stars have bright tails when the atmosphere rubs against a meteoroid and heats its material. Through a process called ablation, this contact heating turns solid matter right into gas.

A picture shows the path of a clump of solar rain as it falls toward the sun's surface.
Image credit: Patrick Antolin. Background image: ESA/Solar Orbiter EUI/HRI

Ablation also happens when comets that circle the Sun get too close to our star, but it doesn’t occur to these solar shooting stars. This is because strong magnetic fields in the corona organize the falling gas into clumps. Resultantly, the formation of right tails stops, making it hard to see solar meteors until now.

Antolin said,

“The inner solar corona is so hot that we might never be able to send a spacecraft there to study it.” “However, Solar Orbiter orbits close enough to the sun to see small things happening in the corona, like how rain affects the corona. This gives us a valuable indirect look at the coronal environment, which is important for understanding its composition and thermodynamics.”


Astrochemistry involves studying how molecules are formed and behave in space. Scientists began exploring this field in the 1800s when they discovered various elements in the Sun. Following the observation of organic compounds, they found Amino acids in space. In recent years, the study of astrochemistry has gained significant momentum.

Amino Acids in Nebulae, Comet Tails, and Star Nurseries

During the close pass of Halley’s Comet in 1910, scientists detected a molecule called Cyanogen in the comet’s tail. Cyanogen, also known as toxic cyanide, caused some concern among people. In the 1940s and 1950s, radio scientists discovered more simple compounds in space. However, it wasn’t until 1969 that they found a complex molecule called formaldehyde, which is a type of simple carbohydrate essential for life on Earth. This discovery sparked speculation about the presence of organic compounds in space.

Amino Acids in Space, the Essential Precursors

Studies have revealed the existence of numerous complex molecules, such as amino acids, in meteorites. Amino acids play a crucial role in life as they contribute to protein synthesis and are integral components of DNA and RNA. However, detecting amino acids in space is challenging. As a molecule becomes more complex and displays more lines in its spectrum, distinguishing it from other molecules becomes increasingly difficult.

Meteorites are fragments of asteroids or comets that have landed on Earth. Scientists suggest that the chemical similarities found in meteorites indicate the presence of amino acids, which were potentially formed in deep space before the formation of the solar system.

Glycine, First Amino Acid in Space

Nonetheless, advances in high-resolution spectroscopy have improved our ability to identify complex molecules in space. In 2003 scientists detected the first amino acid, glycine, in a nebula. Glycine is the simplest stable amino acid and also acts as a neurotransmitter in the human brain. Subsequently, glycine was found in comet tails and star nurseries, suggesting that amino acids necessary for life might have originated in space.

Tryptophan, New Amino Acid in PMC

In a recent discovery, scientists found another amino acid, tryptophan, in space. Tryptophan is a  type of amino acid responsible for protein synthesis. In turn, it is the key factor in ensuring the development or existence of living organisms. The researchers detected tryptophan within the Perseus Molecular Complex (PMC), which consists of star-forming clouds. The location of these clouds was around 1,000 light years away from Earth. By analyzing data obtained from the Spitzer infrared observatory, the scientists could identify 20 spectral lines specific to tryptophan. The team made this significant finding in a relatively warm region of the star-forming area. This indicated a higher chance of the occurrence of certain additional amino acids in warm space clouds.

Which Compounds exist on Mars?

Expeditions and studies have been carried out to look for organic substances, like amino acids, on the surface of the planet. In archaic Martian rocks, Curiosity found complicated organic molecules in 2018 such as thiophene, methanethiol, and dimethyl sulfide.

Are there any traces of Amino acids on the Moon?

A group of NASA-funded researchers has resolved a continuing enigma from the Apollo moon landings, regarding the source of organic stuff discovered in lunar remains that were brought back to Earth. Low quantities of organic matter in the form of amino acids are present in the samples of soil brought back from the Moon by Apollo astronauts. The fundamental components of proteins, which are necessary for existence and are employed to create structures like the skin and hair and control chemical processes, include several amino acids.


Roscosmos Spacewalk

Mark your calendars for Thursday, June 22, as NASA gears up to provide an exciting live broadcast of a spacewalk performed by two Roscosmos cosmonauts outside the International Space Station. In order to move stuff from the Rassvet segment to the new Nauka multifunctional research module, two Roscosmos cosmonauts will perform an array of spacewalks exterior to the International Space Station in the months of April and May. NASA will broadcast the space missions live.

NASA Broadcasting Roscosmos Live

Beginning at 9:45 a.m. EDT, you can tune in to NASA TV, the NASA app, or the agency’s website to catch all the action. The highly anticipated spacewalk of Roscosmos is slated to commence around 10:20 a.m. and is anticipated to extend for up to seven hours.

The orbital station has been dedicated to a continual American human population since the establishment of NASA, which has helped humanity learn how to survive and thrive in space for lengthy intervals of time. The space station will serve as a launching pad for NASA’s upcoming major exploration initiatives, such as the Artemis lunar expeditions and, eventually, manned missions to Mars.

Astronauts in Roscosmos Spacewalks

The skilled duo undertaking this mission of Roscosmos are Sergey Prokopyev and Dmitri Petelin, integral members of Expedition 69. Venturing through the Poisk airlock, their objectives include retrieving essential experimental items and setting up vital contact equipment.

Sergey Prokopyev, a seasoned veteran, boasts an impressive track record of six previous spacewalks. He will be easily identifiable by his red-striped Orlan spacesuit. Dmitri Petelin, on the other hand, has successfully executed four spacewalks and will don the blue-striped spacesuit for this excursion. Attend this incredible event as these daring cosmonauts embark on their extravehicular journey to enhance the International Space Station and secure the necessary tools for ongoing operations.

Roscosmos and International Space Station

Among the key collaborators on the International Space Station (ISS) is Roscosmos. Within the ISS, there is constantly a minimum of one Russian cosmonaut. The Russian Soyuz spacecraft served as the sole path for astronauts to reach the International Space Station (ISS) between the termination of the American space travel mission in 2010 and the start of spaceflights with the Dragon capsules in 2020. At the conclusion of 2024, Roskosmos said it would stop working on the ISS mission and start building an independent orbital space station.

Roscosmos Extension in Space Lab

But later, Roscosmos declared that Russia will continue its involvement in the International Space Station as long as 2028, contradicting Yuri Borisov’s declaration from a year ago that Russia intended to withdraw from the space lab after 2024 and concentrate on developing its own orbiting outpost.

Director-General of Roscosmos Yuri Borisov claims that Russia is entering into satellites launching agreements with states in Africa, Europe, and Asia in order to promote the expansion of its aerospace sector and take all of the benefits of the aerospace sector for social and economic growth.

Roscosmos and NASA’s Deal

Russian cosmonauts will be permitted to fly on American-built spacecraft as a substitute for American astronauts being permitted to travel on Russia’s Soyuz. All this happened owing to a long-sought deal between NASA and Roscosmos regarding integrating missions to the International Space Station.

According to a declaration from Roscosmos, “the accord aligns with furtherance of the goals of Russia as well as the United States of America and will encourage the establishment of collaborative efforts under the confines of the ISS programme.” It will also make it easier to “explore the outer universe for constructive purposes,” the agency added.



The image of an Irregular Galaxy captured by the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope unveils the captivating galaxy NGC 7292, adorned with a handful of luminous stars and the ethereal blurs of galaxies situated in the distant backdrop.

hubble ngc7292

Irregular Galaxy Shows the Picture of Vastness of the Nature

The celestial beauty known as NGC 7292, nestled within the frame of this picture, stands as a testament to the vastness of our universe. Unlike its spiral counterparts, NGC 7292 defies convention with its unique morphology.

Its core gracefully extends, forming a distinctive bar-shaped structure that sets it apart.

Moreover, NGC 7292 exudes an intriguing dimness, earning the epithet of a low surface brightness galaxy.

Such galaxies, dominated by interstellar gas and enigmatic dark matter, often play host to stellar mysteries yet to be fully unraveled.

Hubble Captured Irregular Galaxies

Guided by their insatiable thirst for knowledge, astronomers directed the Hubble telescope toward NGC 7292.

This endeavor was part of a comprehensive observational program delving into the aftermath of Type II supernovae to unravel their intriguing diversities.

These cataclysmic events occur when massive stars, having exhausted their nuclear fuel, collapse, only to violently rebound in a brilliant explosion that tears the stellar fabric asunder.

Among the many celestial phenomena that have graced NGC 7292, one event stands out in astronomical annals—SN 1964H. Discovered by keen-eyed scientists in 1964, this supernova is a remarkable milestone in our quest to comprehend the cosmos.

By scrutinizing the surrounding stellar companions of SN 1964H, astrophysicists can glean insights into the star’s magnitude before its cataclysmic demise.

Furthermore, these meticulous observations promise to unveil other remnants of stellar companions that once shared a celestial dance with the progenitor of SN 1964H.

Why is Irregular Galaxy Called So?

Any galaxy that does not easily conform to the categories outlined in the Hubble classification scheme is called an irregular galaxy.

These galaxies lack a distinct shape or structure, and they may have originated from collisions, encounters with other galaxies, or intense internal disturbances.

What are the Main Parts of an Irregular Galaxy?

A disk is present in irregular galaxies, but spiral arms are absent.

Nonetheless, these galaxies exhibit a blend of both mature and youthful stars alongside abundant gas and dust.

How Many Stars Are in Irregular Galaxy?

A disk is present in irregular galaxies, but spiral arms are absent. Nonetheless, these galaxies exhibit a blend of both mature and youthful stars alongside abundant gas and dust.

What is the Best Known Irregular galaxy?

The Large and Small Magellanic Clouds, commonly called LMC and SMC, respectively, are among the most recognizable irregular galaxies.

These galaxies can be seen as compact luminous clouds in the Southern Hemisphere’s night sky, even without the aid of telescopes.

What are irregular galaxies filled with?

Like spiral galaxies, irregular galaxies frequently contain substantial amounts of gas, dust, and numerous vibrant young stars.

Approximately 20% of galaxies nearby are classified as irregular galaxies. On the other hand, quasars are concentrated regions situated at the galaxy’s core, emitting tremendous levels of energy.

NASA has recently done some research on the complex structure of the moon and found out that there is microbial life on the moon.

But, how did NASA come to this news? Let’s find out!

As we all know that the moon is a lifeless place in comparison to Earth. Without any evidence of life, glistening clouds, or flowing water.

Microbial Life on the South Pole of the Moon

However, according to a NASA expert, the moon is more complex than it first appears.

Microbial life could survive in hostile circumstances like those on the moon, according to Prabal Saxena, a planetary scientist at NASA’s Goddard Spaceflight Centre.

According to Prabal Saxena,

“There may be potentially habitable niches for such life on some airless bodies in relatively protected areas.”

But first, let’s find out if is there a presence of microbial life in space or anywhere is possible.

Is There Microbial Life in Space?

Microbes can be found wherever humans are present, including our homes, offices, industrial areas, the outdoors, and even in space. Bacteria and fungi inhabit these environments alongside us.

Did Microbial Life on Moon Come Up From Earth?

If these moon bacteria exist, they most certainly came from Earth and rode along with a lunar lander.

Saxena researches potential extraterrestrial life places beyond our solar system, but he has lately collaborated with a team focused on a region closer to Earth: the lunar south pole.

Ice craters and potential microbial life on the moon can be found in the lunar south pole.
Because NASA plans to land its Artemis III astronauts there in 2025, the lunar south pole has received a lot of interest recently.

There are 13 probable landing sites that have been identified by the agency.

next human moon landing

Will This Microbial Life on Moon be Helpful for NASA?

The lunar south pole has never been occupied by a human being. However, the Moon Mineralogy Mapper from NASA has revealed that it has ice in its craters, which astronauts may mine for rocket fuel.

Some areas of these craters are perpetually in the dark and in shadow. These lunar niches are therefore never exposed to the sun’s harmful radiation, making them a potential refuge for extremely virulent bacteria.

According to a recent study by Saxena,

“Importantly, recent research on the survivability of microbes exposed to conditions like those on parts of the lunar surface indicate surprising resilience of numerous microorganisms to such conditions,”

It has been said by Leonard David for Inside Outer Space.

cold traps
A map showing “cold traps” within gloomy lunar craters at the moon’s south and north poles (left and right). Blue dots indicate areas where water ice may exist at or near the surface.

Microbial Life on Earth: Deinococcus radiodurans 

For instance, scientists discovered that a bacterium known as Deinococcus radiodurans endured for a year outside the International Space Station. Additionally, tardigrades have endured outside the ISS in the harsh environment of space.

According to Saxena,

“We’re trying to figure out which particular organisms might be best suited for surviving in such regions.”

Even if bacteria don’t now exist on the moon, they most likely will if we begin to move around on its surface. According to Space.com, if Saxena and his team are correct, those bacteria might not only survive in these perpetually covered craters but also flourish and thrive there.

Is There a Microbial Life on Moon?

According to a planetary scientist from NASA, the conditions present on the south pole of the Moon have the potential to support microbial life.

Studies have revealed that specific microorganisms on our planet have the ability to survive in harsh environments. Consequently, it is seemingly fair that this resilient microbial life on Earth might have unintentionally traveled to the Moon aboard a lunar lander and currently reside there.

Can Bacteria Live on the Moon?

During the Apollo 12 mission, the camera that belonged to the Surveyor 3 probe was returned to Earth from the Moon. Upon examining the camera, scientists made an intriguing discovery. Which is the presence of a living bacterium called Streptococcus mitis. 


Above mentioned data shows us that there is microbial life on Moon, and scientists will use it for future research, and findings.


A human mission to Mars research has quite a relevant, and interesting topic. It has not captured the attention of space enthusiasts, and many space scientists, but also let us discover many new findings.

Let’s take a deep dig into the recent research, and Mars exploration by NASA!

Recent Mars Research & Development:

If you are wondering what is the latest news of Mars 2023, then let us unveil the crisp news for you. Scientists did a recent discovery in which they found that ancient bacteria on Mars can endure near-surface conditions for significantly longer durations than previously estimated.

Aside from this, let’s have a look at other recent findings that have also been collected in the Mars research paper. 

The center of Mars and its liquid core has been the subject of a captivating new study, shedding light on the planet’s formation and evolution. The research, which was initially planned to span just over one Mars year (equivalent to two Earth years), produced remarkable findings.

And despite the challenges posed by Martian storms as the Mars temperature is very high, which accelerated dust buildup and limited power to the NASA Mars lander, NASA extended the mission.

This extension allowed for the continued collection of geophysical data, including signals of mars-quakes, until the conclusion of last year.

Mars Research Station Utah:

The names of places on Earth, explorers, and even cartoon characters may be found on Martian maps.

The Perseverance rover of Mars NASA is now studying rock outcrops at the rim of Mars’ Belva Crater.

NASA’s Curiosity rover recently dug a sample 2,300 miles (3,700 kilometers) distant at a place known as “Ubajara.” The crater has an official name, but the drill site is known by a nickname, hence the quotation marks.

Both names are among dozens used by NASA missions to describe not just craters and hills, but also every boulder, pebble, and rock surface studied.

Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech/University of Arizona
Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech/University of Arizona

Mystery Behind Selecting This Name:

Project scientist for the Curiosity mission at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Southern California, Ashwin Vasavada, explained that the main rationale for selecting all of these names was to make it easier for the crew to keep track of what they are discovering every day. Later on, we can refer to the many hills and rocks by name as we discuss them and eventually document our discoveries.

The method by which scientists generate identities has developed from the early days, 25 years ago, when they employed cartoon character names. Take a closer look.

Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech

What are the Official Titles That are Given to Mars Research?

The International Astronomical Union (IAU), a scientific body, has approved official names, therefore it seems simple to distinguish between an official and an unofficial name on Mars. The IAU establishes naming guidelines for planetary features and records them in the Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature.

For example, when it comes to craters on celestial bodies on mars surface, if a crater is bigger than 37 miles (60 kilometers) in diameter, it gets named after famous scientists or science fiction writers. However, if a crater is smaller than that, it gets named after cities with populations of less than 100,000 residents. Perseverance has been studying Jezero Crater, which is named after a Bosnian town. Belva, an impact crater within Jezero, is named after a West Virginia town, which is named for Belva Lockwood. It is suffragist who campaigned for president in 1884 and 1888.

Why the Official Names of Findings in Mars Research has been Replaced?

Early Mars missions’ nicknames were occasionally quirky, even employing cartoon character names. The unofficial titles “Yogi Rock,” “Casper,” and “Scooby-Doo” were among many given to NASA’s first rover, Sojourner, in the late 1990s.

With the Spirit and Opportunity rovers, whose crews began choosing more purposeful names, the mentality shifted. The Opportunity crew, for example, dubbed a crater “Endurance”.

After the ship that transported explorer Ernest Shackleton’s ill-fated mission to Antarctica. Curiosity and Perseverance are named after science-fiction writers Ray Bradbury and Octavia E. Butler, respectively.

The InSight team called a boulder jostled by the lander’s retrorockets during touchdown “Rolling Stones Rock,” after the rock band. In addition, the Curiosity crew named a Martian hill after Rafael Navarro-González, a colleague who died from COVID-19 problems.

Official Names of Findings in Mars
Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech/USGS-Flagstaff/University of Arizona

Why is There So Much Research on Mars?

You will be surprised to know that thousands of research has been made on Mars. so let’s find out the reasons, by looking at the recent missions.

Mars research center Toronto, Canada has launched recent missions.

The Curiosity and Perseverance missions, with a few exceptions, keep to nicknames based on terrestrial locales.

Curiosity’s crew generated a geological map of the landing location before the rover landed in 2012. They started by laying out a grid with quadrants or squares that were each about 0.7 miles (1.2 kilometers) in size.

These quadrants would be based on a geologically significant location on Earth.

Then, as today, team members proposed topics based on places where they have worked or have a personal connection, and they informally debated which would be the most fascinating to add, bearing in mind that different names would be commemorated in future scientific articles.

Curiosity and Perseverance:

After selecting a topic, hundreds of names that suit that theme are compiled. That many are required because the available names can rapidly run out, considering that Curiosity may spend many months in a quadrant.

Curiosity’s newest quadrant was named after Roraima, Brazil’s northernmost state, and Mount Roraima, the tallest peak in the Pacaraima Mountains, which are located near the borders of Venezuela, Brazil, and Guyana.

This was the first quarter theme from South America. The sulfate-rich area Curiosity is presently investigating, with its flat-topped hills and steep slopes, reminded them of the Pacaraima range’s “tabletop” mountains.

Scientists picked national park themes for Perseverance. The rover is presently investigating the Rocky Mountain sector and has recently drilled into rocks at a place known as Rocky Mountain National Park’s “Powell Peak.”