Someday, the three galaxies in the constellation Boötes will combine into a single, enormous, brilliant galaxy. The Hubble Space Telescope has captured an incredible new image of galaxies collision course. It is rare for three galaxies to collide simultaneously, but this event is particularly notable for a different reason. All three galaxies which collide are actively generating new stars at the time of the event.

The Galaxies collision in the Boötes constellation results in one massive galaxy. At the same time, the gravitational interactions between the three galaxies will destroy the spiral structure the galaxies currently display.

SDSSCGB 10189:

These three galaxies, known as SDSSCGB 10189, appear so close together in the photograph that they might be merging. Galaxies’ original shapes have been warped further by the gas and dust that connects them. There is a lot of light coming from the three galaxies.

On the scene’s left side, there is a spiral galaxy that is not involved in the collision. This galaxy appears to be calmly watching the events unfold, much like a human who is “rubbernecking” a car crash on Earth.

Only 50,000 light-years separate the three massive star-forming galaxies that makeup SDSSCGB 10189. At first glance, this distance may appear to be quite large and relatively safe from a collision, but in a cosmological context, it is actually quite close. For instance, the distance between the sun and Andromeda, the galaxy closest to the Milky Way, is more than 2.5 million light-years.

Brightest Cluster Galaxies (BCGs) are the largest and most massive galaxies in the cosmos. The Hubble Space Telescope has captured a new image as part of an investigation into the birth of these galaxies

Barycentric Galactic Group (BCG):

In gas-rich galaxies collision and merge, a barycentric galactic Group (BCG) is created. Galactic clusters are massive structures made up of hundreds or thousands of galaxies. To understand the birth histories of these clusters, scientists can study the types of cluster galaxies that make them up. The complex structure of dark matter clumps and filaments connecting individual galaxies within a cluster is the “cosmic web.”. Scientists believe that BCGs, or Brightest Cluster Galaxies, may provide valuable insights into the history of the cosmic web.

The formation of BCGs and its implications for the evolution of the cosmos over the past 13.8 billion years remain contentious topics of discussion. Many astronomers believe these enormous, brilliant galaxies arose when the universe was only approximately 19% of its present age. Nonetheless, there are many who believe BCGs are still developing and changing in the present day.

If SDSSCGB 10189 does indeed combine, the birth of a BCG would provide much-needed insight into the formation timing of these enormous, brilliant galaxies.


Published by: Sky Headlines

Hubble telescope recently captured an image of a host of astronomical objects scattering in the universe. Galaxies ranging from stately spirals to fuzzy ellipticals scatter across the telescope image. While a smattering of bright foreground stars is closer to home. The small galaxy UGC 7983 sketchy shape appears as a hazy cloud of light visible in the middle of the image. In the constellation Virgo, around 30 million light-years from Earth, the small dwarf irregular galaxy UGC 7983 is located. Moreover, some researchers say that it is identical to the very earliest galaxies in the universe.

A relatively nearby astronomical interloper is also visible in the picture. Across the upper left-hand side of the image a minor asteroid in our own solar system streaks. Split by small gaps the asteroid’s trail is visible as four streaks of light. The four different exposures that were merged to make up this image are represented by these light streaks. Filter modifications inside the Hubble telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys between exposures can be seen in the tiny gaps between each observation.

In order to observe every known galaxy close to the Milky Way capturing an asteroid was a fortunate side effect of a larger effort. However, Of all the Milky Way’s near galactic neighbors, Hubble had imaged roughly 75%. A group of astronomers suggested using the gaps between longer Hubble observations to capture images of the remaining 25%. To fill gaps in the Hubble telescope observing schedule and in our knowledge of nearby galaxies, the project was an elegant and efficient way.


Published by: Sky Headlines

Isn’t it interesting that AI in space exploration is making incredible milestones day after day?

When humans look up to the night sky, they often get stunned by its spaciousness and curiosity. Even in today’s world, that sense of curiosity continues. But, thanks to modern technology, and artificial intelligence. They have emerged as a powerful tool that not only gives answers to our fascination but also uncovers some of the universe using innovative methods.

AI Is Being Used in Space Exploration img 1
Incredible Ways AI Is Being Used in Space Exploration

AI, the artificial intelligence play a significant role in many explorational journeys of Space. From the keen control of robots and satellites to the complex analysis of vast datasets and satellites. AI offers us a lot of new knowledge. Besides this, AI functions as a versatile key that effectively unlocks many secrets of the cosmos. That is why AI is allowing scientists to boldly explore realms that were once confined to the realm of imagination.

We will explore some of the best applications of AI in space exploration, and see how it is helping scientists in the best ways.

AI in Space Exploration is Getting Crazy Day by Day!

Artificial Intelligence (AI) plays an essential role in numerous space exploration missions. From controlling robots and satellites to analyzing complex satellites and databases. Artificial intelligence is the heart of mission exploration. AI’s flexibility allows us to unravel its mysteries and provide researchers with new fields they had never thought they could explore. AI helps scientists in a variety of ways.

Let’s take a look at:

  • Robots for Navigation Purposes

AI in space exploration specifically navigate using self-deployment robots. Rovers such as Mars Exploration Rover and Curiosity have explored Mars independently for a long time, using sensors that detect obstacles such as rocks. They use AI algorithms to analyze the data to map safe routes to prevent collisions.

Robots for Navigation Purposes
Image credit: NASA/ARC

Perseverance Rover uses AEGIS to determine the most suitable rocks to collect samples and paving the way for totally independent space-based autonomous rovers.

Satellite Operations utilizing Artificial Intelligence. It is changing satellite operations improving efficiency and increasing intelligence at the same time.

SpaceX incorporates Artificial Intelligence (AI) algorithms in their navigation satellites. These algorithms utilize sensor data like speed and location measurements to determine the risk of collision. If their AI senses there could be a threat of collision, their computer onboard immediately alters their course in order to ensure that they do not get into a collision.

  • Optimization of Satellites

AI plays a crucial part in optimizing satellite orbits. It helps satellites to choose more efficient routes that take less fuel and time for precise positioning – thereby saving resources while also increasing the effectiveness of their missions.

AI in space exploration img 3

Space Data Analysis with Artificial Intelligence allows quicker and more accurate analysis of satellite data making use of machine learning’s ability to recognize patterns to identify patterns in satellite data sets, assisting us identify the most important aspects or issues more quickly.

AI is able to more effectively recognize patterns, and offer more precise, precise and complete analyses than traditional methods have ever been able to do and perform more effectively than other method! AI could be even more economical!

  • Astrogeology (or planetology) is the study of formations in space

Artificial intelligence (AI) lets scientists make use of it to detect and classify features such as eruptions and craters on planets and moons by constructing 3-dimensional representations of their surfaces, which offer us more insight into their past and the environment they inhabit.

AI in space exploration img 4

SpaceX has embraced Artificial Intelligence (AI) to improve their rockets. AI analyses sensor and instrument data to aid in precise control. In addition, they are making use of this AI to automatically land and focusing on maintaining engines and equipment to ensure landings are successful each time.

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is an integral component in space exploration. AI technology is able to quickly process information and steer spacecraft independently through space and help probes move faster so that we get a better view into the universe beyond Earth.

What can Artificial Intelligence applications aid space exploration?

AI technology can enhance the efficiency of spacecrafts, assisting them in completing tasks on their own collecting relevant data and enhancing the odds of success in mission by assisting spacecraft move autonomously around studying the information they have collected and identifying problems quickly and enabling tasks to run more efficiently.

What role can AI robots and AI play in space exploration?

NASA makes use of AI to connect spacecraft while SpaceX uses it to land rockets in safety on Earth.

Could Artificial Intelligence find use in the field of space technology?

AI is an essential source of satellite production. Utilizing machine learning techniques to evaluate designs quickly, AI allows us to quickly identify solutions. In assessing aspects like weight, strength and functional considerations, AI gives all the necessary information for designing spacecrafts.

Are there ways to make AI and exploration coexist?

Spacecraft with AI enhancements can be incredible instruments. They are not only capable of autonomously exploring space missions with greater efficiency and cost-effectiveness as well, but they can also help scientists by providing analysis of data capabilities that enhance our understanding of the universe!

When was the first time artificial intelligence be introduced to space exploration?

Deep Space 1 first utilized Artificial Intelligence in space in 1998, through the Space satellite Deep Space 1. AI was used to study two comets which included Borrelly and Braille employing “Remote Agent”, an new method of thinking specifically to analyze the properties of these objects.

Deep Space 1
Deep Space 1

Bottom Line:

Artificial Intelligence has proven an important tool when it comes to looking into space. AI assists us in identifying things that would otherwise be difficult to recognize. For example, objects changing their course or even small aspects we could ignore. Before AI became so prevalent with regard to space research, many AI applications relied on satellite data obtained from Hubble Space Telescope satellites alone to get a better understanding of space.

Artificial Intelligence AI in space exploration has performed many roles. From serving as a teacher and guide to spacecraft travel, AI has also helped astronauts master new techniques. NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory developed an AI system that can manage missions in a way that is autonomous. Machine learning also analyzes images taken by Mars spacecrafts, looking for possible sources of water or other materials on Mars.

Exploring the cosmos is very exciting. That is the reason the Stargazer telescope gives you a lot of information on stars, galaxies, and the universe. Space travel is rare, a professional telescope lets you discover stars from home. Whether you are curious to know more about the stars, or you want to have a tour of stars in space, a great addition to your home.

Today, we will do a Stargazer telescope review which is helpful in many aspects. Be it the price, lens, magnifying ability or the setting, we will cover everything that you must know!

 So, without any delay, let’s get started.

Stargazer Telescope – What You Should Look for?See Stars through Stargazer Telescope

If you want to get your hands on the best, and most professional telescope. Then, you must check some boxes to have the perfect one. But if doing the thrilled activity of stargazing is new to you, then the technical terms and numbers might feel overwhelming.

That is the reason, choosing a telescope can be complex. But don’t worry, our buyer’s guide simplifies it. We’ll explain in easy terms, helping you choose wisely and enjoy your purchase to the fullest.


The most common type of telescope is the refraction telescope. For instance, the stargazer telescope SG50600. It uses lenses to bring things closer by bending light. As we all know good lenses bend light better, which gives you a clearer image. So, you should always look for models with coated lenses, as they prevent light from bouncing off and improve image quality.

If you are wondering how the Celestron telescope is different from the refraction one, then the reflector models include the Celestron Power-seeker range of telescopes. A refracting telescope uses a lens to collect and focus light to present a magnified image at the eyepiece.

Refraction telescopes are great for beginners and those on a budget. So, if you want to buy the Stargazer telescope for sale, then this one would be your go-to stop. They’re easy to set up and use, and you can take them to darker areas for better views if you’re in a well-lit area.

A Matter of Degrees

Telescopes come up with the piece of the night sky. We measure object sizes, like the moon, in degrees within this view. For instance, the moon spans around 1/2°. This is important to remember when shopping for telescopes. And when you are looking for the best telescope for viewing planets and galaxies, you’ll observe different degree measurements.


This is the feature of the telescope that is confusing. t makes things appear larger in the sky, like a 50x magnification telescope making the moon look 25 times bigger. But it would be your surprise that only high magnification doesn’t guarantee clear images. Many things count. Bad lenses, wrong aperture, or focal length can make distant things look blurry. Magnification is useful if used correctly. It’s good for examining close objects in detail, such as the moon, and with the long focal length of the Stargazer telescope, you can see far galaxies and star clusters.

Stargazer Telescope Eyepieces – How to Know What Size is Right?See Stars through Stargazer Telescope

You can get it done by changing the magnification by switching eyepieces in stargazer telescopes. They have various sizes. Like the Stargazer Professional Telescope, it has 10mm and 25mm eyepieces. The eyepiece size is about focal length. Longer ones give a wide view with less magnification, good for far things or centering before using a high-magnification eyepiece. Shorter ones magnify more, but the view is narrower. Start with the big eyepiece to find an object, then switch to smaller ones to zoom in.

The Perfect Conditions for Stargazing

Unfortunately, having your telescope perfectly set up is only half the story. Earth’s weather and the atmosphere still matter, no matter your location. Cloudy nights block your view, and even on clear nights, there’s another problem. Which is the atmospheric seeing. This means the air turbulence can blur what you see through the stargazing telescope.

Poor seeing doesn’t always ruin stargazing, but it can make spotting faint objects hard. You can’t control allSee Stars through Stargazer Telescope atmospheric conditions, yet there’s plenty you can do to improve your experience.

Watch weather reports for warm or cold fronts. These displace the air and create turbulence, making it tough to see clearly, depending on where you’re looking. Clear air above means better views. Listen for high-pressure systems – they mean many clear nights.

So that you can choose these calm nights for stargazing!

Surprisingly, there are lots of air disturbances coming from nearby, even your telescope. Start by letting your telescope cool to the surroundings’ temperature. Warmer air in front of the lens will fade as it cools, so set it up and wait a bit.

Where you are also matters for good seeing. Roads hold daytime heat and let it go at night. This warmth disturbs cooler air, causing poor seeing. Always opt for grassy spots to see better. Coastal areas have cool airflow from the ocean breeze. If not near the coast, go for rolling hills or flat fields to set up.

How much does a Stargazer telescope cost?

If you are wondering about the Stargazer Telescope price 2023. Then a decent telescope for looking at things costs about $300. Besides this, if you want to take pictures of space, then the starting price for a telescope is around $800.

What is the best stargazer telescope?

The best telescopes 2023 for the beginner and advanced scopes for viewing are given below:

  • Celestron. NexStar 8SE.
  • Celestron. Astro Fi 102mm.
  • Unistellar. eVscope 2.
  • Unistellar. Equinox 2.
  • Orion. Starblast II.
  • Celestron. Inspire 100AZ.
  • Celestron. StarSense Explorer LT 114AZ 114mm f/9 AZ Reflector Telescope.
  • Vaonis Stellina.

Which telescope is used to see galaxies?

Hubble Space Telescope gives us clear data to study galaxy structures and tell apart starlight and black hole emissions. It’s also super sensitive, showing us the faintest faraway galaxies.

Which is the best telescope in the world?

Here are the five strongest telescopes on Earth and in space:

Why is the NASA telescope so expensive?

Over more than 20 years, NASA constructed the James Webb Space Telescope for $10 billion, making it their most expensive science project. Delays and cost overruns emerged due to intricate engineering and mismanagement.

We’ve answered a crossword clue for you, which is the “Operator of the James Webb Telescope”. It is from The New York Times Mini Crossword! This puzzle is actually a mini crossword. Moreover, it is a popular online word game that you should definitely give a shot.

By playing, you can engage your mind with words and have a creative puzzle-solving experience. And in case you’re short on time to solve the crosswords, you can rely on our provided answer clues! We will highlight at the centre of this content. So, hang on, and keep reading!

NYT Operator of the James Webb Telescope:

The New York Times newspaper’s website now has different games like Crossword, mini Crosswords, spelling bee, and sudoku. You can play some of them for free, but for the others, you need to subscribe and pay.

Many people have enjoyed solving crossword puzzles at some point in their lives. Every day, millions of people turn to these puzzles for a fun escape that lets them relax, have fun, or keep their minds active. At The Sky Headlines, we understand this feeling well because we also enjoy solving various crosswords and puzzles every day.

Sometimes, we get stuck and can’t find a specific answer. But don’t worry! Today, we’re here to help you with the crossword clue “Operator of the James Webb Telescope.” Moreover, this clue can assist you in moving forward to the next puzzle hint or even finishing the whole puzzle.

Operator of the James Webb Telescope Crossword Clue Answers

One clue can have many possible answers, and we’ve gathered all the answers we know for the “Operator of the James Webb Telescope” clue. This clue was last seen on March 1, 2023, in the NYT Mini Crossword. That is why, to be sure your answer is correct. Match the lengths of the answers we give below with the spaces available in the crossword you’re solving.

The solution to the Operator of the James Webb Telescope crossword clue should be:

NASA (4 letters)

Below, you’ll find any keyword(s) defined that may help you understand the clue or the answer better.

Clue & Answer Definitions

  • TELESCOPE (noun)
    1. A magnifier of images of distant objects
  • TELESCOPE (verb)
    1. Crush together or collapse
    2. Make smaller or shorter
  • OPERATOR (noun)
    1. A shrewd or unscrupulous person who knows how to circumvent difficulties
    2. An agent that operates some apparatus or machine

More Facts About James Webb Telescope You Didn’t Know Earlier!

Operator of James Webb telescope
An animation illustrating what the James Webb Space Telescope Looks like. Credit: NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center (modified)

The James Webb Space Telescope is the biggest and most powerful space telescope ever built. It can help scientists see what the universe was like about 200 million years after the Big Bang. Furthermore, this special telescope can take pictures of some of the first galaxies that formed. It can also look closely at things in our solar system. It starts from Mars and goes outward. Additionally, it can go into dusty areas to find where new stars and planets are forming. It will also carefully study the air around planets that go around stars other than our Sun.

Here are some fun facts about the James Webb Space Telescope:

It is very, very big:

The Webb telescope is as tall as a 3-story building and as long as a tennis court! It’s so big that it needs to be folded up like origami to fit into the rocket for launch. Once it’s in space, the telescope will carefully unfold itself, starting with its sunshield.

NYT mini crossword
The James Webb Space Telescope is about the same size as a tennis court and about as tall as a 3-story building! Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

It can see through dust clouds:

The James Webb Space Telescope looks at the universe using a kind of light that humans can’t see. This special light is called infrared radiation, which we feel as warmth. In situations like firefighting, people use infrared cameras to find and save individuals in smoky fires. Similarly, the James Webb Space Telescope uses its infrared cameras to look through dusty areas in space. These dust clouds are where stars and planets form, which could lead to exciting discoveries.

Operator of James Webb telescope
Infrared cameras can see through dust and smoke. Credit: NASA/IPAC/Pasadena Fire Dept.

Additionally, the telescope can take pictures of things like the earliest galaxies. These are so far away that the universe expanding has changed their light from what we can see to infrared. This ability really broadens what the telescope can explore.

Who operates the James Webb telescope?

The development of the James Webb Space Telescope was overseen by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Leading the development in the industrial sphere is Northrop Grumman, while post-launch operations of Webb are conducted by the Space Telescope Science Institute.

Who is the main engineer of the James Webb telescope?

At the Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, Mike Menzel serves as the NASA Mission Systems Engineer for the James Webb Space Telescope. He has occupied this role since becoming a part of NASA in June 2004.

Who owns the images from the James Webb Telescope?

The open market of merchandise stems from the fact that the pictures captured by the James Webb telescope are within the public domain. According to U.S. copyright law, with certain limited exemptions, creations produced by the federal government and its affiliated entities are exempt from copyright restrictions.

How many people worked on James Webb?

The images of distant history, captured by the James Webb telescope, depict a universe that existed billions of light years away during its early stages of formation after the Big Bang. Aside from this, the workforce of around 20,000 individuals dedicated nearly two decades to this endeavor. Among them is engineer Bill Ochs, who has assumed the role of project manager since 2011.

How many countries are involved in James Webb?

Fourteen countries are providing hardware components to build the James Webb Space Telescope. And these includes, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom and the United States of America.

Where is the Webb Telescope headquarters?

The institute facilitates the dissemination of astrophysics to the general public. And they do it through widely acknowledged news, educational initiatives, and outreach programs. Moreover, they located on the grounds of Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland, it is managed by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) on behalf of NASA.

How much James Webb Space Telescope costs?

According to NASA budget documents, the project has cost about $10 billion through the 2021 fiscal year.

From February 1961 to October 1968, Webb led the burgeoning space agency. He was a proponent of achieving equilibrium between human space flight and scientific endeavors within NASA. Interestingly, the individual whose name NASA has opted to honor with the successor to the Hubble Space Telescope. Which is basically primarily link with the Apollo moon program, rather than scientific pursuits.

Which country is NASA located in?

NASA is located in the United States of America. Its full form is National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). NASA headquarters, in Washington, D.C. And they exercises management over the NASA Field Centers. Moreover, they establishes management policies, and analyzes all phases of the ISS program.

Bottom Line!

If you’re looking for a bigger and more difficult crossword puzzle experience, we’ve gathered all the solutions for the New York Times Crossword right here. These answers can help you solve the puzzles. Aside from this, if you have any problems with the solutions or questions, feel free to ask us in the comments. We’re here to assist you!

NASA is now letting Astro-enthusiasts check about a comic wonder of “What did Hubble see on your birthday?”

Hubble Telescope is basically a telescope that glares at the stars. They do it with their wide lens wide open 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Each day of the year would surely look at something specific each day.


NASA is providing a feature to find your birthday:

A message on the webpage where internet users can check this out.

“What did Hubble see on your birthday? Enter the month and date below to find out.”

What did Hubble see on your birthday?

NASA says:

“Then share the results with your friends on social media using #Hubble30.”

Besides this, Netizens shared images using the hashtag, sharing magnificent images taken by NASA Hubble Birthday.

What is NASA Hubble Telescope? Let’s have a keen insights!

Since it took off in 1990, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) has shown us lots of amazing pictures.  You can also check NASA images by date. These pictures are not just nice to look at, they make people excited about space.

But Hubble does more than take pretty pictures. Over the years, it has collected a ton of data, like a huge amount of computer files. Besides this, the data has helped us learn a lot about space. Hubble looks at things that are close, like the Moon, and things that are really far away. For instances, like galaxies that are super, super distant. It looks at different things, like exploding stars and cloudy areas in space called nebulas. All of these well curated data paves the way to answer your query of What did Hubble see on your birthday!

Let’s talk about the history of the telescope and what it has found out. We’ll also tell you interesting things about NASA Hubble archive pictures too.

A Brief Details About Hubble Telescope:

Back in 1610, a scientist named Galileo Galilei used a spyglass to look at the sky. He had a hard time seeing the rings around Saturn, which we can easily see with telescopes today. As time went on, scientists improved telescopes to see planets, stars, and faraway galaxies better. But the air around Earth still caused problems, making the views blurry. So, scientists put telescopes on high mountains where the air is thinner, making the views clearer.

After World War II in 1946, an astronomer named Lyman Spitzer had an idea. He wanted to put a telescope in space, away from Earth’s problems, to get even better views. But it took a while for people to agree with his idea. Finally, in the 1960s, a group of scientists wrote a paper about how useful this space telescope could be. They said it should be big and ambitious. The people who decide about space stuff, like NASA, heard about this and thought it was a great idea.

But it wasn’t until 1971 that things really got moving. A person named George Low, who was in charge of NASA at that time, said yes to the idea of a big space telescope. That was the time the idea of Hubble telescope came out. NASA then started asking for money from the government to make it happen.

How NASA answers your quest of “What did Hubble see on your birthday?”

In 2021, NASA made something special. They let people see how the universe looked on their birthdays. These pictures are on a website called the Astronomy Picture of the Day (APOD). NASA and Michigan Technical University work together to run this website.

Here’s how they do it:

  • They use the Hubble Space Telescope to take all these pictures.
  • Furthermore, this amazing telescope is named after a famous astronomer named Edwin Hubble.
  • It was sent into space by a space shuttle called Discovery in 1990.
  • Hubble can see really well, and it gives us incredible views of space.
  • It goes around the Earth very fast, like 17,000 miles per hour.

How to see what the Hubble telescope saw on your birthday?

To view what the Hubble observed on your birthdate, simply visit the NASA website. Once there, pick your birth month and day, then click “submit” to access the image and accompanying details of what Hubble captured.


What did the Hubble see in 1997?

On June 27, 1997, the Hubble telescope captured images of Mars as part of the preparations for the Pathfinder spacecraft’s landing on July 4. Furthermore, these pictures unveil a dust storm in motion within the expansive Valles Marineris canyons, situated approximately 600 miles (1,000 kilometers) to the south of the designated landing site for the Pathfinder spacecraft.

What did Hubble see in his telescope?

Helped pin down the age for the universe now known to be 13.8 billion years, roughly three times the age of Earth. Discovered two moons of Pluto, Nix and Hydra. Helped determine the rate at which the universe is expanding. Discovered that nearly every major galaxy is anchored by a black hole at the center.

What is the most famous image from Hubble?

The surrounding region is composed of visible-light observations taken by the Advanced Camera for Surveys. The NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope has revisited one of its most iconic and popular images: the Eagle Nebula’s Pillars of Creation.

Eagle Nebula
The Eagle Nebula taken on September 2014. IMAGE: NASA.

What did Hubble see on May 22 2003?

In 2003, specifically on May 22, the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope (HST) made an intriguing observation of enigmatic “jets” emanating from the planetary nebula known as Henize 3-1475. That is why, this celestial phenomenon has earned the playful moniker of the “Garden-sprinkler” Nebula among astronomers.

What is Hubble birthday?

Launched on April 24, 1990 by NASA’s Discovery shuttle, the Hubble Space Telescope was shot into space to get a glimpse of distant and exotic galaxies and stars. Which is a promise it has lived up to. So, NASA has curated many educative and fascinating data to answer, What did the sky look like on my birthday?

Why is Hubble so famous?

By 1929, Hubble had fundamentally transformed our perception of our position in the cosmos. Besides answering what did Hubble see on your birthday, it also reveals other important discoveries too. The universe was no longer just a realm containing numerous galaxies; it was also undergoing expansion.

Was there any time that the launch of Hubble Telescope got delayed?

A space shuttle called Challenger exploded just a minute after it took off on January 28, 1986. This accident killed all seven astronauts on board. After this, space shuttles didn’t fly for more than two and a half years. During this time, NASA had to plan Hubble’s launch again.

On April 24, 1990, the space shuttle Discovery successfully launched Hubble into space. The next day, it placed the telescope into a low orbit around Earth, at a distance of about 340 miles (545 kilometers) above the planet’s surface. Moreover, the process of creating Hubble and sending it into space cost $1.5 billion. However, this marked only the beginning of the financial commitments, as additional costs continued to arise in the following years.

NASA has recently captured a monster galaxy, but it is not the monster that you are imagining. It is a galaxy cluster roughly eight billion light-years from Earth.

Intriguing? Yes, it is! Let’s find out more about it.  

ESA Hubble Captures Monster Galaxy that is Merging to Form a Massive Gravitational Lens

In this view of the extraordinary galaxy cluster eMACS J1353.7+4329, which resides roughly eight billion light-years from Earth in the constellation Canes Venatici, the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope has captured a monster in the making. This collection of at least two galaxy clusters is merging to become a cosmic monster, a single massive cluster serving as a gravitational lens.

Now, we will see how Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity works here and how it relates to the monster galaxy. 

Visualization of Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity 

A striking illustration of Einstein’s general theory of relativity in action is gravitational lensing. A celestial entity, such as a monster galaxy is large enough to warp spacetime, causing the path of light around the object to be twisted visually, as if by a large lens.

Things that would typically be too weak and too far away to be discovered can be observed by astronomers thanks to gravitational lensing, which can also magnify faraway objects.

It can also distort photographs of background galaxies, turning them into light streaks. The initial signs of gravitational lensing may be seen in this image as brilliant arcs that blend in with the swarm of galaxies in eMACS J1353.7+4329.

Apart from this, here arises the question, will this visualization further help in scientific studies? The following part of the blog is solely related to it!

Monster Galaxy: Paving the Path for James Webb Space Telescope Studies

The data in this image come from the Monsters in the Making observation effort, which employed two of Hubble’s sensors to observe five unique galaxy clusters at several wavelengths. Hubble’s Wide Field Camera 3 and Advanced Camera for Surveys enabled these multi-wavelength studies.

The researchers hope their findings will open the way for future studies of monster galaxies of huge gravitational lenses using next-generation telescopes like NASA’s/ESA’s/CSA’s James Webb Space Telescope.

You have surely heard about the galaxies clusters. But how is it different from the monster galaxy? Let’s see it!

A COSMIC MONSTER! What is this all about? Let’s Find Out!

Hubble’s latest image reveals a dense congregation of oval-shaped galaxies forming a galaxy cluster, each exhibiting a radiant orange halo around a luminous core. But it is not the monster galaxy.

Scattered across the image are numerous other galaxies, accompanied by a brilliant star showing a starburst effect characterized by distinct diffraction spikes.

Guys, now you will surely think about the relationship of its finding to the early galaxies. That is why to clear your thoughts, we have curated a part. So, keep reading!

A Cosmic Cluster: Let’s Dig Deep Into It!

This colossal cosmic cluster serves as a gravitational lens, enabling scientists to delve into the intricate details of early galaxies beyond their typical reach. Gravitational lensing occurs when massive foreground objects, like the merging galaxies observed here, warp the fabric of spacetime, leading to the magnification or distortion of light from more distant objects.

ESA officials explained:

“The significant mass of a celestial body such as a galaxy cluster distorts the very fabric of spacetime, visibly bending the path of light as if through a vast lens,” 

“The initial indications of gravitational lensing are already evident in this image as luminous arcs, intermingling with the multitude of galaxies in eMACS J1353.7+4329.”

In the solar system. to observe the existence of certain stunning spiral galaxies, tools like telescopes are used.

How did Hubble revolutionize the astronomical world with stunning spiral galaxies?

The greatest important development in astronomy until Galileo’s telescope occurred with the launch and activation of Hubble in April 1990. Our understanding of cosmic phenomena and our standing therein has changed significantly over the course of over two decades of operations and 5 maintenance expeditions. The researchers said;

“Robotic telescopes allow us to detect everything from unexpected asteroids to rare, unpredictable supernovae and can identify intriguing objects that can then be investigated in more detail by powerful telescopes such as Hubble.”

How can the appearance of spiral galaxies be explained?

Featuring yellowish swells in the middle, stunning spiral galaxies look like straight blue-white discs of celestial bodies, gases, and dust. The two distinct categories of these galaxies are regular spirals and barred spirals. Within a spiral galaxy, the spinning disc is surrounded by spiral ‘arms’ that extend outward from a compact center region. A galaxy with spiral arms is the Milky Way. Galaxies can be divided into four categories: spiral, barred spiral, elliptical, and erratic.

Astrophysical research conducted by Lord Rosse led to the identification of several nebulae as stunning spiral galaxies.

Discovery of a stunning spiral, the UGC 11860

In a photograph captured by NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, the stunning spiral galaxy UGC 11860 appears suspended peacefully among a landscape of distant galaxies. The galaxy UGC 11860, which is located in the celestial Pegasus and is about 184 million light-years out of reach, deceives the eye with its peaceful demeanor by recently hosting a nearly unfathomably intense stellar outburst.

Following operating successfully for more than three decades, the space observatory from NASA and the European Space Agency continues to operate leading to important findings. Beth Biller, an astronomer at the University of Edinburgh in the UK and leader of a council that represents researchers who use Hubble, believes there continues to be a tonne of work to be performed with Hubble.

Also, 2014 saw the detection of an eruption of supernovae in stunning spiral UGC 11860, the horrifically violent conclusion of a giant star’s lifespan. Hubble’s Wide Field Camera 3 was utilized by researchers to explore the following events and examine the continuing repercussions of this massive cosmic explosion.

Hubble astronomers said.

“The untroubled appearance of UGC 11860 can be deceiving,”

“This galaxy recently played host to an almost unimaginably energetic stellar explosion.”

What was the chemical makeup of the spiral galaxy, UGC 11860?

To learn more about the star systems that ultimately perish in supernovae, one team investigated a stunning spiral galaxy, the UGC 11860. The elements that reside spanning silicon and nickel on the periodic chart were mostly created by extremely intense mechanisms during exploding supernovae. In order to figure out the number of chemical elements on Earth that came to be, it is crucial to comprehend the impact of the mass numbers and compositional makeup of the precursor star constellations.

Stunning spiral stars thus, are discovered by NASA’s Hubble, opening an entrance into the early universe. Nature is full of spirals, starting with the swirl of a cyclone to the immense expanses of spiral galaxies throughout our cosmos to the pinwheel-shaped protoplanetary discs surrounding young stars.
Additionally, Hubble has been utilized by astronomers from Arizona University and around the world to look into far-off galaxies and gain a deeper understanding of both the distant past and the distant future of our evolving cosmos.



On Saturday,1st July at around 11:11 a.m. EDT, a new space telescope named Euclid spacecraft is ready to go to space. Let’s dive in further to know about the amazing journey of this spacecraft;

What the Euclid spacecraft actually is?

It is a European Space Agency (ESA) project, but NASA, the American space agency, also helped a lot. Its main job is to discover why the universe is getting bigger faster and faster. Scientists are curious about the strange force causing this, calling it “dark energy.”

Two of the greatest contemporary enigmas about the cosmos, dark matter and dark energy, will be clarified by the ESA project Euclid spacecraft, to which NASA will also contribute.

Nancy Grace Telescope collaborating with Euclid spacecraft

By May 2027, another NASA telescope called the Nancy Grace Roman Space Telescope will team up with Euclid. Together, they will try to solve this mystery in new ways. Jason Rhodes, a top research scientist at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Southern California and a key person in both the Roman and Euclid spacecraft projects, said that;

“Even though we learned about the universe’s fast expansion 25 years ago, we still don’t understand it”.

He said;

“These new telescopes would help us measure dark energy much better than before, starting a new exploration period.”

Scientists are curious to know if the universe’s speedy expansion is because of some extra energy or if it means that we need to change how we understand gravity. Astronomers will use Roman and Euclid to look into both of these theories. They think both of these projects will give us important information about the universe’s workings.

How will the Roman and Euclid will work?

Euclid and Roman are made to study the universe’s speedy expansion, but they’ll do it in different ways that complement each other. Both will make 3D maps of the universe to answer big questions about its history and structure. Together, they’ll be much more powerful than they would be alone.

Euclid spacecraft will look at a much bigger area of the sky – around 15,000 square degrees, or about a third – using infrared and optical light but will see less detail than Roman. It will look back 10 billion years to when the universe was about 3 billion years old.

Roman can look at the universe with more detail and precision but will cover a smaller area – about 2,000 square degrees, or one-twentieth of the sky. Its infrared vision will see the universe when it was 2 billion years old, showing more fainter galaxies. While Euclid spacecraft will only look at the universe’s structure, Roman will also study closer galaxies, find and study planets throughout our galaxy, look at objects at the edges of our solar system, and much more.

Some crucial aspects of the ESA's Euclid and NASA's Roman spacecraft are compared in this infographic.

The Hunt for Dark Energy

The universe has grown since it was born, a fact discovered by Belgian astronomer Georges Lemaître in 1927 and Edwin Hubble in 1929. But scientists thought that the universe’s gravity would gradually slow this growth. In the 1990s, by looking at a specific kind of supernova, scientists found out that about 6 billion years ago, dark energy started to have a bigger effect on the universe, and we don’t know how or why. The fact that the universe’s expansion is speeding up means that we don’t understand something about the universe.

What will Euclid and Roman projects will study?

Roman and Euclid will give us new data to help us understand this mystery. They’ll try to figure out what’s causing the universe’s speedy expansion in a few different ways. First, Roman and Euclid will look at how matter has accumulated over time using weak gravitational lensing. This happens because anything with mass bends space-time; the more mass, the more bending. The light that moves through these bends looks distorted. The background can look smeared or show multiple images when the bending objects are big galaxies or clusters of galaxies.

Less concentrated mass, like clumps of dark matter, can create smaller effects. Roman and Euclid spacecraft will create a 3D map of dark matter by studying these smaller distortions. This will give clues about the universe’s speedy expansion because the gravitational pull of dark matter, acting like a glue that holds galaxies and galaxy clusters together, fights against the universe’s expansion. By counting all the universe’s dark matter over time, scientists will better understand the push-and-pull causing the universe’s speedy expansion.

The two projects will also study how galaxies are grouped at different times in the universe. Scientists have seen a pattern in how galaxies gather from measurements of the nearby universe. For any galaxy today, we are about twice as likely to find another galaxy about 500 million light-years away than a little nearer or farther.

Observing the Expansion of universe

This distance has grown over time because of the universe’s expansion. By looking further into the universe via Euclid spacecraft, to earlier times, astronomers can study the preferred distance between galaxies in different periods. Seeing how it has changed will reveal the universe’s expansion history. Seeing how galaxy grouping varies over time will also allow a precise gravity test. This will help astronomers tell the difference between an unknown energy component and different theories about modified gravity as explanations for the universe’s speedy expansion.

Roman’s survey for Ia supernova

Apart from Euclid spacecraft, Roman will conduct an extra survey to discover many faraway type Ia supernovae – a special exploding star. These explosions have a similar brightness. Because of this, astronomers can determine how far away the supernovae are by measuring how bright they look.

Astronomers will use Roman to study the light of these supernovae to find out how fast they appear to be moving away from us. Scientists will trace the universe’s expansion over time by comparing how fast they’re moving away at different distances. This will help us better understand whether and how dark energy has changed throughout the universe’s history.

What is the significance of Roman and Euclid spacecraft project?

The two projects’ surveys will overlap, with Euclid likely looking at the entire area Roman will examine. Scientists can use Roman’s more detailed and precise data to correct Euclid’s and apply these corrections to Euclid’s larger area.

Mike Seiffert, a project scientist for the NASA contribution to Euclid at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, said that Euclid spacecraft’s first look at the big area of sky it will study would inform the science, analysis, and survey approach for Roman’s more detailed examination.

Yun Wang, a senior research scientist at Caltech/IPAC in Pasadena, California, who has led galaxy grouping science groups for both Euclid and Roman, said,

“Together, Euclid and Roman will add up to much more than the sum of their parts.”

He said combining their observations will give astronomers a better idea of what’s happening in the universe.

Three science groups supported by NASA are contributing to the Euclid spacecraft project. Along with designing and making Euclid’s Near Infrared Spectrometer and Photometer (NISP) instrument sensor-chip electronics, JPL led the getting and delivery of the NISP detectors. NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center tested those detectors. The Euclid NASA Science Center at IPAC (ENSCI) at Caltech will support U.S.-based studies using Euclid spacecraft data


The image of an Irregular Galaxy captured by the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope unveils the captivating galaxy NGC 7292, adorned with a handful of luminous stars and the ethereal blurs of galaxies situated in the distant backdrop.

hubble ngc7292

Irregular Galaxy Shows the Picture of Vastness of the Nature

The celestial beauty known as NGC 7292, nestled within the frame of this picture, stands as a testament to the vastness of our universe. Unlike its spiral counterparts, NGC 7292 defies convention with its unique morphology.

Its core gracefully extends, forming a distinctive bar-shaped structure that sets it apart.

Moreover, NGC 7292 exudes an intriguing dimness, earning the epithet of a low surface brightness galaxy.

Such galaxies, dominated by interstellar gas and enigmatic dark matter, often play host to stellar mysteries yet to be fully unraveled.

Hubble Captured Irregular Galaxies

Guided by their insatiable thirst for knowledge, astronomers directed the Hubble telescope toward NGC 7292.

This endeavor was part of a comprehensive observational program delving into the aftermath of Type II supernovae to unravel their intriguing diversities.

These cataclysmic events occur when massive stars, having exhausted their nuclear fuel, collapse, only to violently rebound in a brilliant explosion that tears the stellar fabric asunder.

Among the many celestial phenomena that have graced NGC 7292, one event stands out in astronomical annals—SN 1964H. Discovered by keen-eyed scientists in 1964, this supernova is a remarkable milestone in our quest to comprehend the cosmos.

By scrutinizing the surrounding stellar companions of SN 1964H, astrophysicists can glean insights into the star’s magnitude before its cataclysmic demise.

Furthermore, these meticulous observations promise to unveil other remnants of stellar companions that once shared a celestial dance with the progenitor of SN 1964H.

Why is Irregular Galaxy Called So?

Any galaxy that does not easily conform to the categories outlined in the Hubble classification scheme is called an irregular galaxy.

These galaxies lack a distinct shape or structure, and they may have originated from collisions, encounters with other galaxies, or intense internal disturbances.

What are the Main Parts of an Irregular Galaxy?

A disk is present in irregular galaxies, but spiral arms are absent.

Nonetheless, these galaxies exhibit a blend of both mature and youthful stars alongside abundant gas and dust.

How Many Stars Are in Irregular Galaxy?

A disk is present in irregular galaxies, but spiral arms are absent. Nonetheless, these galaxies exhibit a blend of both mature and youthful stars alongside abundant gas and dust.

What is the Best Known Irregular galaxy?

The Large and Small Magellanic Clouds, commonly called LMC and SMC, respectively, are among the most recognizable irregular galaxies.

These galaxies can be seen as compact luminous clouds in the Southern Hemisphere’s night sky, even without the aid of telescopes.

What are irregular galaxies filled with?

Like spiral galaxies, irregular galaxies frequently contain substantial amounts of gas, dust, and numerous vibrant young stars.

Approximately 20% of galaxies nearby are classified as irregular galaxies. On the other hand, quasars are concentrated regions situated at the galaxy’s core, emitting tremendous levels of energy.