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Lunar South Pole

Secrets of the Moon Revealed: Artemis Unveils Moonquakes and Lunar Faults!

The Lunar South Pole: A New Frontier in Space Exploration and Its Geophysical Mysteries

The exploration of the Moon has always captivated humanity, but recent developments have shifted focus toward one of its most enigmatic regions – the Lunar South Pole. This area is not just a new frontier for space exploration but also a hotbed of scientific intrigue, particularly due to the recent discoveries related to moonquakes and geological faults.

lunar south polar region img 1
The lunar south polar region housed the epicenter of one of the most potent moonquakes recorded by the Apollo Passive Seismic Experiment. Nevertheless, pinpointing the precise location of this epicenter proved challenging. Using a relocation algorithm tailored for extremely sparse seismic networks, a dispersion of potential locations for the strong shallow moonquake is depicted near the pole, represented by magenta dots and a light blue polygon. Proposed Artemis III landing regions are indicated by blue boxes, while small red lines mark lobate thrust fault scarps. The array of epicenter locations encompasses numerous lobate scarps and several of the Artemis III landing regions.
NASA/LROC/ASU/Smithsonian Institution

Where is Lunar South Pole?

The Lunar South Pole, as the name suggests, is the southernmost point on the Moon. It’s not just a specific pinpoint, but rather an entire region characterized by unique features like permanently shadowed craters and potential ice deposits.

Here’s why the Lunar South Pole is so interesting:

Ice Deposits: Unlike most of the Moon’s surface, the permanently shadowed craters at the pole harbor water ice that may have been there for millions or even billions of years. Studying this ice could reveal fascinating details about the Moon’s and our solar system’s history.

Resource Potential: The ice at the South Pole isn’t just a scientific curiosity; it could be a valuable resource for future lunar exploration. Its hydrogen and oxygen could be converted into rocket fuel or used for life support systems, making it much easier and cheaper to maintain a sustained human presence on the Moon.

Unique Astronomical Observations: Due to the lack of radio interference from Earth, the Lunar South Pole offers a prime location for radio astronomy observations below 30 MHz. This frequency range is usually blocked by our planet’s ionosphere, but from the Moon, researchers can study faint cosmic signals that are normally invisible.

The Shrinking Moon and Its Implications

Recent research, propelled by NASA’s Artemis program, has thrown light on a fascinating aspect of the Moon – it is shrinking. This phenomenon, caused by the gradual cooling of the Moon’s interior, is leading to the formation of thrust faults and triggering moonquakes, especially near the Lunar South Pole​​​​.

The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC), a part of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission, has played a pivotal role in identifying these thrust faults. These are cliff-like features that have formed due to the contraction of the lunar surface. The scarps are a direct result of the lunar crust being compressed, causing parts of the crust to be pushed up over adjacent areas. This process is not just a consequence of the cooling of the Moon’s interior but also the tidal forces exerted by Earth​​​​.

Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC)
A mosaic captured by the Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) showcases the Wiechert cluster of lobate scarps, indicated by left-pointing arrows, in the vicinity of the lunar south pole. The image also reveals a thrust fault scarp intersecting a degraded crater with a diameter of approximately 1 kilometer (0.6 miles), marked by a right-pointing arrow.
NASA/LRO/LROC/ASU/Smithsonian Institution

Moonquakes: A New Challenge for Lunar Exploration

One of the most critical findings from recent studies is the occurrence of moonquakes in the Lunar South Pole region. These quakes are believed to be caused by the slip events on these thrust faults or even the formation of new faults. The strongest of these shallow moonquakes was recorded in the south-polar region, underlining the seismic activity’s intensity in this area.

Thrust Fault
Lobate scarps emerge as a result of the lunar crust being compressed during the Moon’s contraction. This compression leads to the fracturing of near-surface materials, giving rise to a thrust fault. The thrust fault displaces crustal materials upward, occasionally moving over adjacent crustal materials. Slip events on pre-existing faults or the creation of new thrust faults instigate shallow moonquakes, capable of inducing significant seismic vibrations tens of miles (many tens of kilometers) distant from the scarp.
Arizona State University/Smithsonian

The implications of these findings are significant, especially for the Artemis program, which aims to land astronauts in the Lunar South Pole region. Understanding the seismicity of the Moon, particularly in the areas earmarked for landing and establishing a human presence, is crucial for the safety of astronauts and the success of the missions​​​​​​.

Which Country Landed First on Lunar South Pole?

The honor of achieving the first landing on the lunar south pole goes to India, on August 23, 2023. Their Chandrayaan-3 mission successfully touched down on the Moon’s southernmost region, marking a significant milestone in space exploration history. This was not only India’s first landing on the Moon but also the first ever at the lunar south pole, making it a truly historic achievement.

It’s important to note that Russia had also planned a mission to land on the lunar south pole around the same time, as their Luna-25 lander. However, their mission unfortunately encountered technical difficulties and did not achieve a successful landing.

Landslides and Surface Instability at the Lunar South Pole

Another aspect of the lunar surface that has come under scrutiny is the stability of the surface slopes, especially in the context of regolith landslides. Studies have shown that certain areas in the south-polar region are susceptible to landslides even with minor seismic shaking. This finding is particularly concerning in regions where ice might be present, such as the permanently shadowed areas.

Modeling of these surface slopes near the Lunar South Pole, like around Shackleton Crater, indicates varying degrees of stability. Some parts of the interior walls of the crater are predicted to be prone to landslides, highlighting the need for careful planning of future lunar missions, particularly in selecting landing sites and constructing infrastructure​​.

Lunar South Pole img 2
The image displays anticipated regions of surface slope instability in the southern polar area. The models focus on a regolith landslide with a thickness of approximately one meter (about 3.3 feet). In the illustration, blue dots represent areas with the least unstable slopes, green dots indicate moderately unstable slopes, and red dots signify the most unstable slopes. The image is centered on Shackleton crater and the lunar south pole. Proposed Artemis III landing regions are outlined by blue boxes. According to the model, significant portions of Shackleton crater’s interior walls, as well as sections of the interior crater walls in the Nobile Rim 1 landing region (as shown in the inset), are deemed susceptible to landslides.
NASA/LROC/ASU/Smithsonian Institution

Why is it difficult to land on Moon’s South Pole?

Landing on the Moon’s South Pole is a thrilling feat, but also an incredibly challenging one, for several reasons:

Rugged Terrain: Unlike the flatter equatorial regions, the South Pole is characterized by a treacherous landscape. Deep craters, steep slopes, and numerous boulders litter the surface, leaving very few smooth landing areas. This makes navigating to a safe touchdown point incredibly difficult, with even small miscalculations potentially leading to disaster.

Permanent Shadows: The Sun barely grazes the lunar South Pole due to its tilt, plunging vast areas into eternal darkness. This creates several problems:

Navigation challenges: Landing vehicles rely heavily on visual systems like cameras and lasers. In these permanently shadowed areas, these sensors become almost useless, significantly diminishing the ability to accurately judge distances and terrain.

Extreme Temperatures: The lack of sunlight results in frigid temperatures reaching as low as -230°C. This poses a major threat to the sensitive electronics and machinery onboard spacecraft, potentially causing malfunction or failure.

Uncharted territory: Much of the South Pole remains unexplored, meaning we have limited data about its detailed surface features and potential hidden hazards. This adds another layer of uncertainty and risk to any landing attempt.

Communication Obstacles: The Earth often falls below the horizon from the South Pole, which can disrupt communication with mission control. This makes it difficult to receive real-time updates, transmit data, or provide crucial course corrections during the critical landing phase.

Fuel Management: Reaching the South Pole requires more fuel than equatorial landings due to the longer trajectory and potentially more complex descent maneuvers. This adds to the complexity of the mission and puts pressure on fuel reserves, leaving less room for error.

The Importance of the Lunar South Pole

The Lunar South Pole is not just a region of scientific curiosity but also of strategic importance. It is believed to house significant deposits of water ice, crucial for sustaining long-term human presence on the Moon. This ice could potentially be used for drinking, growing food, and even splitting into hydrogen and oxygen for rocket fuel.

Moreover, the Lunar South Pole offers unique advantages for exploration due to its relatively stable temperature and the presence of areas that remain permanently illuminated, providing a constant energy source for solar panels.

Preparing for the Challenges

Understanding and mitigating these geological challenges becomes paramount as we edge closer to returning humans to the Moon. Missions like the Farside Seismic Suite aim to gather more comprehensive seismic data, which will be critical in preparing for and mitigating the risks posed by moonquakes and surface instability.


The Lunar South Pole is a region of profound mysteries and immense potential. The recent findings regarding its shrinking surface, moonquakes, and potential landslides present new challenges and open avenues for better understanding our natural satellite. As we prepare for the next era of lunar exploration, the insights gained from these studies will be invaluable in ensuring the safety and success of these endeavors, ultimately paving the way for a sustained human presence on the Moon.

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